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Parlaments pieņem ceturkšņa likumu

Parlaments pieņem ceturkšņa likumu


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1765. gada 24. martā Parlaments pieņem Kvartāla likumu, kurā izklāstītas vietas un nosacījumi, kādos britu karavīriem jāatrod vieta un dēlis Amerikas kolonijās.

1765. Ja kazarmas bija pārāk mazas, lai izmitinātu visus karavīrus, tad apdzīvotajās vietās karavīrus vajadzēja izmitināt vietējās krodziņos, stallī, alejas mājās, pārtikas krājumos un vīna pārdevēju mājās. "Vai pēc tam, kad visas šādas publiskās mājas bija piepildītas, joprojām būtu karavīri bez izmitināšanas," teikts aktā, "tad kolonijām bija jāuzņemas, jānoņem un jāpielāgo Viņa Majestātes spēku uzņemšanai, tādas un tik daudz neapdzīvotas mājas, piebūves , šķūņi vai citas ēkas, ja nepieciešams. "

LASĪT VAIRĀK: 7 notikumi, kas satracināja kolonistus un noveda pie Amerikas revolūcijas

Kā rāda rīcības valoda, populārais tēls par to, ka Redcoats izmet kolonistus no guļamtelpām, lai pārvietotos sevī, nebija likuma nolūks; tā nebija arī prakse. Tomēr Ņujorkas koloniālajai asamblejai nepatika, ka viņam tika pavēlēts nodrošināt britu karaspēka daļu - viņi labprātāk lūdza un pēc tam dod piekrišanu, ja viņiem vispār būs karavīri. Tādējādi viņi atteicās ievērot likumu, un 1767. gadā parlaments pieņēma Ņujorkas ierobežošanas likumu. Ierobežojošais likums aizliedza Ņujorkas karaliskajam gubernatoram parakstīt jebkādus turpmākus tiesību aktus, līdz sapulce izpildīs Ceturkšņa likumu.

Ņujorkā gubernatoram izdevās pārliecināt Parlamentu, ka asambleja to ir izpildījusi. Masačūsetsā, kur barakas jau pastāvēja uz salas, no kuras karavīriem nebija cerību saglabāt mieru pilsētā, kuru skāra Taunsendas ieņēmumu likumi, britu virsnieki sekoja Ceturtdaļas likuma rīkojumam ceturtdaļai savu karavīru ievietot sabiedriskās vietās, nevis privātmājās. Šo ierobežojumu ietvaros viņu vienīgā iespēja bija uzcelt teltis Boston Common. Karavīri, dzīvojot vaigā ar vaigiem ar satriektiem patriotiem, drīz vien tika iesaistīti ielu kautiņos un pēc tam 1770. gada Bostonas slaktiņā, kura laikā tika nogalināti ne tikai pieci akmeņus metošie koloniālie nemieri, bet arī atlikušā uzticība starp bostoniešiem un Redcoats. Šis pārkāpums nekad netiks dziedināts Jaunanglijas ostas pilsētā, un britu karavīri palika Bostonā, līdz Džordžs Vašingtons viņus 1776. gadā izdzina kopā ar kontinentālo armiju.


1765. gada kvartāla akts

Šī ilustrācija par britu karavīru, kurš praktizē militāro treniņu, ir no “Disciplinācijas plāns Norfolkas [Anglijas] milicijas izmantošanai”, kas publicēts 1768. gadā. Džeimstaunas-Jorktaunas fonda kolekcija.

1765. gada 24. martā Lielbritānijas parlaments pieņēma ceturkšņa likumu, kas ir viens no pasākumiem, kuru galvenais mērķis ir palielināt ieņēmumus no Lielbritānijas kolonijām Amerikā. Lai gan ceturkšņa likums neizraisīja tūlītējus un dažkārt vardarbīgus protestus, kas bija pret pastmarku likumu, tas izrādījās strīdu avots starp dažām kolonijām un Lielbritāniju gados pirms revolūcijas.

Septiņu gadu (vai Francijas un Indijas) kara laikā Lielbritānijas militārajiem komandieriem Ziemeļamerikā bieži bija grūti pārliecināt dažu nesadarbojošu koloniju asamblejas apmaksāt mājokļa izmaksas un nodrošināt karavīrus, kas nosūtīti cīņai pret frančiem. Kad karš bija beidzies, karaļa padomnieki nolēma, ka dažiem britu karaspēkiem teorētiski jāpaliek Ziemeļamerikā, lai aizstāvētu kolonijas. Tā kā karš bija atstājis Lielbritāniju ar lielu valsts parādu, bija arī īpaši svarīgi, lai kolonijas apmaksātu savu daļu no šo vīriešu turēšanas Amerikā.

Pretēji izplatītajam uzskatam, 1765. gada Ceturtdaļas likums nepieprasa, lai kolonisti bivakātu karavīrus savās privātmājās. Likums prasīja, lai koloniālās valdības nodrošinātu un apmaksātu visu kolonijā izvietoto karaspēku barošanu un pajumti. Ja nebūtu pieejams pietiekami daudz kazarmu, tad karavīrus varētu izmitināt krodziņos, staļļos, ​​saimniecības ēkās, neapdzīvotās mājās vai privātmājās, kurās tika pārdots vīns vai alkohols. Šis akts neizraisīja plašu vai vardarbīgu opozīciju, daļēji tāpēc, ka ievērojams skaits britu karaspēka bija izvietoti tikai dažās kolonijās, kā arī tāpēc, ka lielākajai daļai koloniju izdevās pilnībā izvairīties no tās noteikumu ievērošanas. Zināmā mērā aktu aizēnoja atbilde uz Pastmarku likumu, kas arī tika pieņemts 1765. gadā.

Neskatoties uz to, daudzi amerikāņu kolonisti uzskatīja Ceturkšņa likumu par vēl vienu veidu, kā Parlaments mēģināja viņiem uzlikt nodokļus bez viņu piekrišanas. Citi uzskatīja, ka patiesais mērķis saglabāt Amerikā nelielu pastāvīgu armiju, kas atrodas piekrastes pilsētās, nevis pierobežā, nav paredzēta aizsardzībai, bet gan jaunās Lielbritānijas politikas un nodokļu ieviešanai. Ceturtdaļas likums 1766. gadā kļuva par šķeļošu jautājumu, tomēr pēc tam, kad Ņujorkā izkāpa 1500 britu karavīru. Ņujorkas provinces asambleja atteicās piešķirt līdzekļus, lai segtu šo vīriešu ēdināšanas un izmitināšanas izmaksas, kā to paredz likums. Atbildot uz to, Lielbritānijas parlaments nobalsoja par provinces asamblejas apturēšanu, līdz tā izpildīs aktu. Kā izrādījās, apturēšana nekad nav stājusies spēkā, jo Ņujorkas asambleja vēlāk piekrita piešķirt ieņēmumus, lai segtu daļu no šo karaspēka sadalīšanas izmaksām. 1765. gada ceturkšņa likums lielākajā daļā koloniju gados, pirms revolūcijas, tika apiets.

Amerikāņu kolonisti aizvainojās un iebilda pret 1765. gada Ceturtdaļas likumu nevis tāpēc, ka tas nozīmēja, ka viņiem savās mājās vajadzēja izmitināt britu karavīrus, bet gan tāpēc, ka viņiem tika uzlikti nodokļi, lai samaksātu par armijas nodrošinājumu un kazarmām, kā arī par pastāvīgu armiju, kas, viņuprāt, bija miera laikā nevajadzīgi, un armija, no kuras viņi baidījās, varētu tikt izmantota pret viņiem.


Parlaments pieņem ceturkšņa likumu

Kā rāda rīcības valoda, populārais tēls par to, ka Redcoats izmet kolonistus no guļamtelpām, lai pārvietotos paši, nebija ne likuma nolūks, ne prakse. Tomēr Ņujorkas koloniālajai asamblejai nepatika, ka viņam tika pavēlēts nodrošināt britu karaspēka daļu - viņi labprātāk lūdza un pēc tam dod piekrišanu, ja viņiem vispār būs karavīri. Tādējādi viņi atteicās ievērot likumu, un 1767. gadā parlaments pieņēma Ņujorkas ierobežošanas likumu. Ierobežojošais likums aizliedza Ņujorkas karaliskajam gubernatoram parakstīt jebkādus turpmākus tiesību aktus, kamēr sapulce neatbilda Ceturkšņa likumam.

Ņujorkā gubernatoram izdevās pārliecināt Parlamentu, ka asambleja to ir izpildījusi. Masačūsetsā, kur barakas jau pastāvēja uz salas, no kuras karavīriem nebija cerību saglabāt mieru pilsētā, kuru skāra Taunsendas ieņēmumu likumi, britu virsnieki sekoja Ceturtdaļas likuma rīkojumam ceturtdaļai savu karavīru ievietot sabiedriskās vietās, nevis privātmājās. Šo ierobežojumu ietvaros viņu vienīgā iespēja bija uzcelt teltis Boston Common. Karavīri, dzīvojot vaigā ar vaigiem ar satriektiem patriotiem, drīz vien tika iesaistīti ielu kautiņos un pēc tam 1770. gada Bostonas slaktiņā, kura laikā tika nogalināti ne tikai pieci akmeņus metošie koloniālie nemieri, bet arī atlikušā uzticība starp bostoniešiem un Redcoats. Šis pārkāpums nekad netiks dziedināts Jaunanglijas ostas pilsētā, un britu karavīri palika Bostonā, līdz Džordžs Vašingtons viņus 1776. gadā izdzina kopā ar kontinentālo armiju.


Saturs

Pilns grozījuma teksts ir šāds:

Neviens karavīrs miera laikā nedrīkst tikt ievietots nevienā mājā bez īpašnieka piekrišanas, kā arī kara laikā, bet likumā noteiktajā veidā. [5]

1765. gadā Lielbritānijas parlaments pieņēma pirmo ceturkšņa aktu [6], pieprasot amerikāņu kolonijām apmaksāt britu karavīru izmaksas, kas dienēja kolonijās, un pieprasīja, lai, ja vietējās kazarmas nodrošinātu nepietiekamu vietu, kolonisti izvieto karaspēku alejas ēkās, viesu namos un dzīvnieku staļļos. Pēc Bostonas tējas ballītes tika pieņemts 1774. gada kvartāla akts. Kā viens no nepanesamajiem aktiem, kas virzīja kolonijas uz revolūciju, tas atļāva Lielbritānijas karaspēku izmitināt visur, kur tas bija nepieciešams, arī privātmājās. [7] Karaspēka sadalīšana tika minēta kā viena no kolonistu sūdzībām ASV Neatkarības deklarācijā. [3]

Pēc vairāku gadu salīdzinoši vājas valdības saskaņā ar Konfederācijas pantiem Filadelfijas Konstitucionālā konvencija 1787. gada 17. septembrī ierosināja jaunu konstitūciju, kurā bija spēcīgāks izpilddirektors un citas izmaiņas. Džordžs Meisons, Konstitucionālās konvencijas delegāts un Virdžīnijas Tiesību deklarācijas sagatavotājs, ierosināja iekļaut likumprojektu par tiesībām, kurās uzskaitītas un garantētas pilsoņu brīvības. Citi delegāti, tostarp topošais tiesību aktu sagatavotājs Džeimss Madisons, nepiekrita, apgalvojot, ka esošās valsts garantijas par pilsoņu brīvībām ir pietiekamas un ka jebkurš mēģinājums uzskaitīt individuālās tiesības rada risku, ka citas, nenosauktas tiesības ir neaizsargātas. Pēc īsām debatēm Meisona priekšlikums tika uzvarēts ar vienbalsīgu štatu delegāciju balsojumu. [8]

Tomēr, lai konstitūcija tiktu ratificēta, deviņām no trīspadsmit valstīm to bija jāapstiprina valsts konvencijās. Iebildumi pret ratifikāciju ("anti-federālisms") daļēji tika pamatoti ar Konstitūcijas trūkumu atbilstošām garantijām pilsoņu brīvībām. Konstitūcijas atbalstītāji štatos, kur tautas noskaņojums bija pret ratifikāciju (tostarp Virdžīnija, Masačūsetsa un Ņujorka), sekmīgi ierosināja, ka viņu štatu konvencijas gan ratificē Konstitūciju, gan aicina pievienot likumprojektu. Vairākās valsts konvencijās tika īpaši ierosināts noteikums pret karaspēka sadalīšanu privātmājās. [3] 1788. gada Virdžīnijas ratifikācijas konvencijā Patriks Henrijs paziņoja: "Viena no mūsu pirmajām sūdzībām bijušās valdības laikā bija karaspēka sadalīšana mūsu vidū. Tas bija viens no galvenajiem iemesliem sakaru pārtraukšanai ar Lielbritāniju. Šeit mums var būt karaspēks miera laikā. Tos var jebkādā veidā veidot - lai tironizētu, apspiestu un sagrautu mūs. " [7]

Priekšlikums un ratifikācija Rediģēt

Amerikas Savienoto Valstu pirmajā kongresā pēc štatu likumdevēju pieprasījuma Džeimss Madisons ierosināja divdesmit konstitūcijas grozījumus, pamatojoties uz štata tiesību rēķiniem un angļu valodas avotiem, piemēram, 1689. gada Tiesību aktu, viens no tiem bija aizliegums sadalīt karaspēku privātmājās. Kongresā tika ierosinātas vairākas nākamā Trešā grozījuma pārskatīšanas, kas galvenokārt atšķīrās no tā, kā tika nošķirts miers un karš (ieskaitot tādas situācijas iespējamību kā nemieri, kas nebija ne miers, ne karš), un vai izpildvara vai likumdevējam būtu pilnvaras atļaut sadalīšanu. [9] Tomēr grozījums galu galā Kongresā tika pieņemts gandrīz nemainīgs un ar vienprātīgu balsojumu. [3] Kongress samazināja Madisona ierosinātos divdesmit grozījumus līdz divpadsmit, un tie tika iesniegti valstīm ratifikācijai 1789. gada 25. septembrī. [10]

Līdz brīdim, kad Tiesību akts tika iesniegts valstīm ratifikācijai, viedokļi bija mainījušies abās pusēs. Daudzi federālisti, kas iepriekš bija iebilduši pret tiesību likumprojektu, tagad atbalstīja likumprojektu kā līdzekli, lai apklusinātu anti-federālistu visefektīvāko kritiku. Turpretim daudzi anti-federālisti tagad iebilda pret to, saprotot, ka likumprojekts tiks pieņemts, ievērojami samazinās iespējas iegūt otru konstitucionālo konvenciju, ko viņi vēlējās. [11] Anti-federālisti, piemēram, Ričards Henrijs Lī, arī apgalvoja, ka likumprojekts atstāja neskartas Konstitūcijas visnepatīkamākās daļas, piemēram, federālo tiesu varu un tiešos nodokļus. [12]

1789. gada 20. novembrī Ņūdžersija ratificēja vienpadsmit no divpadsmit grozījumiem, noraidot II pantu, kas reglamentēja Kongresa algu paaugstināšanu. Attiecīgi 19. un 22. decembrī Merilenda un Ziemeļkarolīna ratificēja visus divpadsmit grozījumus. [13] 1790. gada 19., 25. un 28. janvārī attiecīgi Dienvidkarolīna, Ņūhempšīra un Delavēra ratificēja likumprojektu, lai gan Ņūhempšīra noraidīja grozījumu par Kongresa algu paaugstināšanu, bet Delavēra noraidīja I pantu, kas reglamentēja māja. [13] Tādējādi kopējais ratificējošo valstu skaits sasniedza sešas no nepieciešamajām desmit valstīm, bet process apstājās citos štatos: Konektikutā un Gruzijā likums par tiesību jautājumiem bija nevajadzīgs un tāpēc atteicās to ratificēt, savukārt Masačūsetsa ratificēja lielāko daļu grozījumu, bet neizdevās nosūtīt valsts sekretāram oficiālu paziņojumu, ka tas ir izdarīts. [12] [a]

No 1790. gada februāra līdz jūnijam Ņujorka, Pensilvānija un Rodailenda ratificēja vienpadsmit grozījumus, lai gan visi trīs noraidīja grozījumus par Kongresa algu paaugstināšanu. Virdžīnija sākotnēji atlika debates, bet pēc Vermontas uzņemšanas Savienībā 1791. gadā kopējais ratifikācijai nepieciešamo valstu skaits pieauga līdz vienpadsmit. Vērmonta ratificēja 1791. gada 3. novembrī, apstiprinot visus divpadsmit grozījumus, un Virdžīnija beidzot sekoja 1791. gada 15. decembrī. [12] Valsts sekretārs Tomass Džefersons paziņoja par desmit veiksmīgi ratificēto grozījumu pieņemšanu 1792. gada 1. martā. [14]

Trešais grozījums ir viena no vismazāk citētajām ASV konstitūcijas sadaļām. [15] Ar vārdiem Enciklopēdija Britannica, "tā kā valsts vēsture progresēja ar nelielu konfliktu uz Amerikas zemes, grozījumam ir bijis maz iespēju atsaukties." [16] Līdz šim neviens svarīgs Augstākās tiesas lēmums nav izmantojis grozījumu kā galveno pamatu. [3] [4]

Trešais grozījums dažos gadījumos tika izmantots kā palīdzība Konstitūcijā noteikt netiešas tiesības uz privātumu. [17] Tiesnesis Viljams O. Duglass grozījumu izmantoja kopā ar citiem Tiesību aktā iekļautajiem grozījumiem kā daļēju pamatu vairākuma lēmumam. Griswold pret Konektikutu (1965), [18] kurā minēts trešais grozījums, kas norāda uz pārliecību, ka indivīda mājvietai jābūt brīvai no valsts aģentiem. [17]

Vienā no septiņiem atzinumiem Youngstown Sheet & amp Tube Co. pret Sawyer (1952), tiesnesis Roberts H. Džeksons minēja trešo grozījumu kā pierādījumu Framers nodomam ierobežot izpildvaru pat kara laikā: [17].

Lai gan virspavēlnieka militārās pilnvaras neaizstāja pārstāvības valdību iekšlietās, šķiet acīmredzami no Konstitūcijas un elementāras Amerikas vēstures. Laiks vairs nav prātā, un pat tagad daudzviet pasaulē militārais komandieris var izmantot privātus mājokļus, lai pasargātu savus karaspēkus. Tomēr tā nav Amerikas Savienotajās Valstīs, jo teikts Trešajā grozījumā. [E] ven kara laikā viņam vajadzīgo militāro mājokļu konfiskāciju ir jāsaņem Kongresa atļauja. [19]

Viena no retajām reizēm, kad federālajai tiesai tika lūgts atzīt par spēkā neesošu likumu vai darbību trešā grozījuma dēļ Engbloms pret Keriju (1982). [20] 1979. gadā cietuma amatpersonas Ņujorkā sarīkoja streiku, lai viņus izliktu no ieslodzījuma vietu rezidencēm, kuras tika pārceltas uz zemessardzes locekļiem, kuri uz laiku bija stājušies cietuma apsargu vietā. Amerikas Savienoto Valstu apelācijas tiesa Otrajā kontūrā lēma: (1) ka termins īpašnieks Trešajā grozījumā ir iekļauti īrnieki (līdzīgi gadījumi attiecībā uz ceturto grozījumu, kas reglamentē meklēšanu un konfiskāciju), (2) Zemessardzes karaspēks ir "karavīrs" trešā grozījuma izpratnē un (3) trešais grozījums ir iekļauts (attiecas) valstīm), pamatojoties uz četrpadsmito grozījumu. [21] Lieta tika nodota atpakaļ apgabaltiesai, kas to noraidīja, pamatojoties uz to, ka valsts amatpersonas nevarēja zināt šo interpretāciju. [22]

Pēdējā Trešā grozījuma lēmumā, ko pieņēma federālā tiesa, 2015. gada 2. februārī ASV Nevadas apgabala rajona tiesa notika Mitchell pret Hendersonas pilsētu ka trešais grozījums neattiecas uz pašvaldības policijas darbinieku ielaušanos, jo, neskatoties uz izskatu un aprīkojumu, viņi nav karavīri. [23] Par savām prasībām saskaņā ar trešo grozījumu Mičels apgalvoja, ka policija viņa māju izmantoja kā skatu punktu. [24]

Agrākā gadījumā, ASV pret Valencuēlu (1951), [25] atbildētājs lūdza atcelt federālo īres kontroles likumu, jo tas bija "birokrātu spietu inkubators un inkubators, kas tika sadalīts kā vētras karavīri uz cilvēkiem, pārkāpjot Amerikas Savienoto Valstu III grozījumu." Konstitūcija. " [26] Tiesa noraidīja viņa lūgumu. Vēlāk, gadā Džonss pret ASV aizsardzības ministru (1972), [27] Armijas rezervisti neveiksmīgi minēja trešo grozījumu kā attaisnojumu atteikumam gājienā parādē. Līdzīgi argumenti dažādos kontekstos ir noraidīti arī citos gadījumos. [28]


Brūsa vēstures stundas: 1765. gada ceturtdaļas akts

Kad Lielbritānijas parlaments pieņēma Kvartāla likumu, saskaņā ar kuru kolonistiem bija jānodrošina mājoklis, pakaiši un uzturlīdzekļi Amerikā izvietotajiem britu karavīriem, tas noteikti radīja nepatikšanas.

“Vīrieša mājās ir viņa pils. ” – Sers Edvards Kokss, angļu jurists, 1644

Ja “ bez nodokļiem bez pārstāvības! ” bija amerikāņu kolonistu mītiņa numur viens pret Lielbritānijas valdību, kas noveda pie Amerikas revolūcijas, tuvu būtu sekunde, un vīrieša mājas ir viņa pils! “ #8221

Patiešām, tāpat kā ar reprezentatīvajiem nodokļiem, Lielbritānijas pilsoņa svētums viņa mājās bija dziļi iesakņojies angļu vispārējās tiesībās. Tātad, kad Lielbritānijas parlaments pieņēma Kvartāla likumu (1765. gada 24. martā), kas prasīja, lai kolonisti Amerikā izvietotajiem britu karavīriem nodrošinātu mājokli, pakaišus un uzturlīdzekļus, tas noteikti radīja nepatikšanas.

Šis akts bija tieša atbilde uz ievērojami palielināto britu militāro klātbūtni Amerikā pēc nesen izcīnītā Francijas un Indijas kara.

Lai gan Lielbritānija un tās amerikāņu koloniālie brālēni šajā karā bija uzvarējuši francūžus, joprojām bija ievērojamas pretošanās kabatas - ne tikai franču karaspēks, bet arī vairākas naidīgas indiāņu ciltis, kas apvainojās par koloniālo iejaukšanos viņu medību laukos. Vairākas vardarbīgas sadursmes starp kolonistiem un šīm indiāņu ciltīm lika Lielbritānijai palielināt savu militāro klātbūtni Jaunajā pasaulē, kas, protams, lika viņiem atrast dzīvojamās telpas.

Tā kā karaspēks bija tur, lai aizsargātu kolonistus, Parlaments pieņēma, ka šie kolonisti būtu pārāk priecīgi uzņemties savu daļu no šī sloga, atverot savas mājas, viesu nami un veikalus britu karavīriem.

Šis pieņēmums bija kļūdains, daļēji tāpēc, ka kvartālistu likumu, piemēram, Zīmogu likumu, Cukura likumu un citus 1760. gadu nodokļu likumus, kolonisti uzskatīja par draudiem viņu tiesībām.

Un viņu spēkam. Būdami angļi, par kuriem viņi ļoti uzskatīja sevi, kolonisti ne tikai uzskatīja, ka viņiem ir tiesības būt drošiem savās mājās, bet, vēl svarīgāk, viņi ar savu ievēlēto amatpersonu starpniecību noteiks, vai šīs tiesības ir jāgroza, nevis Lielbritānijas valdība, kas atrodas okeāna attālumā. Citiem vārdiem sakot, tāpat kā Parlamentam nebija pilnvaru tos aplikt ar nodokli, jo viņi nebija pārstāvēti Parlamentā, arī Parlamentam nebija pilnvaru piespiest viņus uzņemt britu karavīrus.

Galu galā, tāpat kā zīmogu un cukura likumi, Ceturkšņa likums tika atcelts 1770. gadā, kad Parlaments saprata, ka tā izpildes izmaksas ievērojami pārsniedz ieguvumus.

Bet stāsts ar to nebeidzas.

1774. gadā Masačūsetsas kolonistiem kā viens no Bostonas tējas ballītes sodiem tika uzlikts daudz drakoniskāks kvartāla likums.

Šis akts ne tikai palīdzēja sākt revolūciju, bet bija tik ļoti ienīsts, ka 17 gadus vēlāk aizliegums apkalpot karavīrus kļuva par trešo grozījumu mūsu Konstitūcijā.


Reakcija uz ceturkšņa likumu

1774. gada kvartāla likums kolonistiem nepatika, jo tas acīmredzami bija vietējās varas pārkāpums. Tomēr iebildumi pret ceturkšņa likumu galvenokārt bija daļa no iebildumiem pret nepanesamajiem aktiem. Ceturkšņa likums pats par sevi neizraisīja nekādas būtiskas pretestības.

Tomēr ceturkšņa likums tika pieminēts Neatkarības deklarācijā. Karalim piedēvēto “atkārtoto ievainojumu un uzurpāciju” sarakstā bija “Par lielu bruņotu karaspēku sadalīšanu mūsu vidū”. Tika pieminēta arī pastāvīgā armija, kuru pārstāvēja Ceturtdaļas akts: "Viņš miera laikā mūsu vidū ir saglabājis pastāvīgās armijas bez mūsu likumdevēju piekrišanas."


Lielbritānijas parlaments: 1765

Likums, ar ko groza un padara efektīvāku viņa Majestātes kundzību Amerikā, šajā pašreizējā parlamenta sesijā pieņemtais akts, kas domāts, akts par sacelšanos un dezertēšanu, kā arī par labāku samaksu armijai un tās mītnēm.

TĀ KĀ pašreizējā parlamenta sesijā pieņemtajā aktā, ar domu, akts par sacelšanos un dezertēšanu, kā arī par labāku samaksu armijai un tās karaspēkam tiek pieņemti un pieņemti vairāki noteikumi, lai uzlabotu armijas valdību, un viņi ievēro stingru disciplīnu un nodrošina telpas armijai, ratiņus gājienos un citos vajadzīgos gadījumos, kā arī uzliek sodus likumpārkāpējiem par vienu un to pašu darbību, kā arī daudziem citiem tajā minētajiem labiem mērķiem, taču ar to var nepietikt spēkiem. ko var izmantot viņa Majestātes kundzībās Amerikā: un tā kā minētā akta turpināšanas laikā var būt iespēja gājienā un pulcēties viņa majestātes spēku pulkos un komandās vairākās viņa majestātes kundzības daļās Amerikā; un tā kā publiskās mājas un kazarmas viņa Majestātes kundzībā Amerikā var nebūt pietiekamas, lai apgādātu telpas šādiem spēkiem; un tā kā ir lietderīgi un Nepieciešams, lai karjeras un citas ērtības tiktu piegādātas karaspēka gājienam viņa Majestātes kundzībā Amerikā, lai nodrošinātu šo mērķi: neatkarīgi no tā, vai to nosaka karaļa izcilākā majestāte, garīgo un laicīgo kungu padoms un piekrišana, un kopēji, šajā pašreizējā parlamentā, kas ir sapulcējies, un ar tās pilnvarām, ka šī akta turpināšanas laikā un tā laikā, un ne vairs, tas ir un var būt likumīgi konstabeļiem, desmitniekiem, tiesnešiem un citiem pilsoņiem ciematu, pilsētu, apdzīvotu vietu, pilsētu, rajonu un citu vietu virsnieki, kas atrodas Viņa Majestātes kundzībā Amerikā, un, ja tie nepilda vai nav, par jebkuru miertiesnesi, kas dzīvo šādā ciematā, apdzīvotā vietā, pilsētā, rajonā vai tā tuvumā. vai citā vietā, un nevienam citam un tādiem konstebļiem, desmitniekiem, tiesnešiem un citiem ierēdņiem, kas minēti iepriekš, ar šo ir pienākums kvartetēt un sagatavot virsniekus un karavīrus viņa Majestātes dienestā kazarmās. kolonijas un, ja minētajās kazarmās nav pietiekami daudz vietas virsniekiem un karavīriem, tad un tikai šādā gadījumā, lai ceturtdaļotu un sagatavotu šādu virsnieku un karavīru atlikumus, kuriem šādās vietās nav vietas. kazarmās, krodziņos, stallīšos, alu namos, pārtikas veikalos un vīna pārdevēju mājās mazumtirdzniecībā, lai dzertu savās mājās vai tam piederošajās vietās, un visas cilvēku mājas, kas pārdod rumu, brendiju, stipru ūdeni , kideru vai meteglinu, mazumtirdzniecībā, dzert mājās, un gadījumā, ja virsniekiem un karavīriem šādās kazarmās, krodziņos, pārtikā un citās sabiedriskās ēkās nav pietiekami daudz vietas, kā šādā un nevienā citā gadījumā, un citu iemeslu dēļ ir atļauts un var būt likumīgi pilnvarot un iecelt katras provinces gubernatoram un padomei, kas atrodas viņa Majestātes kundzībā Amerikā, un ar šo viņi tiek pilnvaroti un pilnvaroti pilnvarot un iecelt tādu personu vai personas, kādas viņi ir uzskata, ka ir piemērots, pieņem, pieņem darbā un padara piemērotu, un, ja minētais gubernators un padome neieceļ un pilnvaro šādu personu vai personas, vai, ja šāda persona vai personas, kas tik ieceltas, neievēro savus pienākumus, viņi to neievēro ja tas ir un var būt likumīgi jebkuram diviem vai vairākiem viņa Majestātes miertiesnešiem minētajos ciematos, pilsētās, pagastos, pilsētās, rajonos un citās vietās vai to tuvumā, un viņiem ar šo tiek prasīts ņemt, pieņemt darbā un iznomāt piemērots viņa Majestātes spēku uzņemšanai, piemēram, tik daudz neapdzīvotu māju, saimniecības ēku, šķūņu vai citu ēku, kas nepieciešamas, lai tur ierindotu tādu virsnieku un karavīru atliekas, kuriem šādās kazarmās un sabiedriskās telpās nevajadzētu būt mājas, kā minēts iepriekš, un ievietot un sadalīt tajā šādu virsnieku un karavīru atlikumus.

II. Un ar šo tiek pasludināts un pieņemts, ka nevienā laikā netiks pasūtīts vairāk sagatavju, nekā tajā ir izvietoti efektīvi karavīri, un lai šo dienestu varētu efektīvi nodrošināt, Amerikas virspavēlnieks, vai cits virsnieks, pēc kura pavēles jebkurš pulks vai rota dodas gājienā, laiku pa laikam dod vai liek dot informāciju, tiklīdz tas ir iespējams, rakstiski, ko paraksta šāds gājiena komandieris vai virsnieks, norādot viņu skaits un gājiena laiks pēc iespējas tuvāk katras provinces attiecīgajiem gubernatoriem, caur kuriem viņiem jāstaigā, lai saskaņā ar šo aktu varētu iecelt un pilnvarot uzņemt un pieņemt darbā atbilstošas ​​personas, ja ir vajadzīgas, neapdzīvotas mājas, palīgtelpas, šķūņi vai citas ēkas, lai uzņemtu tādus karavīrus kā kazarmas un sabiedriskās mājas, nepietiek, lai turētu vai uzņemtu.

III. Un, ja to vēl nosaka augstākminētā iestāde, ka jebkurš militārpersona uzņemsies karavīru ceturtdaļu jebkurā viņa Majestātes valdībā Amerikā, ja vien šis akts nav ierobežots un atļauts, vai arī izmantos vai piedāvās jebkādu apdraudējumu vai piespiešanu jebkuram miertiesnesim, konstabelam, desmitniekam, tiesnesim vai citam iepriekšminētajam civildienesta ierēdnim viņa Majestātes kundzībās Amerikā, cenšoties atturēt un atturēt kādu no pienākumiem, kas ar šo tiek prasīti vai iecelti virsnieks par katru šādu nodarījumu, būdams divu vai vairāku viņa majestātes miertiesnešu priekšā, kas dzīvo divu vai vairāku viņa majestātes miertiesnešu starpā, kas dzīvo šādos ciemos, pilsētās, pagastos, pilsētās, rajonos vai citās vietās, ar divu vai vairāku uzticamu liecinieku zvērestu, tiek uzskatīta un uzskatīta par ipso facto kasieri, un ir pilnīgi invalīds, lai viņa Majestātes dienestā varētu veikt vai turēt militāru darbu, saņemot apliecinājumu par to. o virspavēlnieks Amerikā, ja vien minētā notiesājošā sprieduma pieņemšana netiek atlikta pēc apelācijas, kas sešu mēnešu laikā ir iesniegta pienācīgā tiesā, lai izskatītu apelācijas sūdzības par notiesāšanu miertiesu tiesnešiem; šāds konstebls, desmitais tiesnesis, tiesnesis vai cits civildienesta ierēdnis savā mājā vai pie tās ir sarīkojis vai salicis vairāk karavīru, nekā viņam vajadzētu uzņemt proporcionāli saviem kaimiņiem, un sūdzas par to vienam vai vairākiem tiesnešiem vai tiesnešiem miers ciematā, pilsētā, apdzīvotā vietā, pilsētā, rajonā vai citā vietā, kur šādi karavīri ir apmetušies, šādam tiesiskumam vai tiesnešiem ir vai ir tiesības ar šo palīdzību atbrīvot šādu personu, pavēlot izraidīt tādus un tik daudz karavīru un, ja tās ir saskatītas pēc iemesla, ir pakļautas citai personai vai personām, un šādai citai personai vai personām ir pienākums attiecīgi uzņemt šādus karavīrus.

IV. Turklāt ar nosacījumu, lai arī turpmāk tiktu ieviests, ka neviens tiesnesis vai miertiesnesis, kas ieņem vai pilda jebkādu militāru amatu vai uzdevumu viņa Majestātes regulārajos spēkos Amerikā, šī akta turpināšanas laikā nevar tieši vai netieši rīkoties vai rīkoties. ir norūpējies par karavīru vai karavīru iecirknīšanu, iecelšanu vai iecelšanu, saskaņā ar šā karavīra vai karavīru iecirkņa nosacījumiem (izņemot gadījumus, kad nav cita tiesneša vai miertiesneša), bet ka visas garantijas, darbības, lietas vai lietas, ko izpildījis vai iecēlis šāds tiesnesis vai miertiesneši par to pašu vai par to, ir spēkā neesošas visas lietas, kas satur pretējo.

V. Tomēr ar nosacījumu un ar šo tiek ieviests, ka virsnieki un karavīri, kas ir sadalīti un sagatavoti, kā minēts iepriekš (izņemot tādus, kas ir ievietoti kazarmās, un īrētas neapdzīvotas mājas vai citas ēkas, kā minēts iepriekš), tiks saņemti un aprīkoti ar diētu un mazu alu, cideri vai rumu, kas sajaukts ar ūdeni, ko piedāvā krodziņu, stallīšu, alejas, pārtikas un citu māju īpašnieki, kuros ar šo darbību ir atļauts tos sadalīt četrās daļās un samaksāt. tāpat kā šeit minētās vairākas likmes, kas jāmaksā no iztikas līdzekļiem, par diētu un mazu alu, cideru vai rumu, kas sajaukts ar ūdeni.

VI. Nodrošināts vienmēr. Ka gadījumā, ja ikviens krodziņa īpašnieks vai cita persona, uz kuru saskaņā ar šo aktu tiek attiecināti jebkādi virspavēlnieki vai privātpersonas, atrodas jebkurā viņa Majestātes valdījumā Amerikā (izņemot gājienu vai tiek nodarbināta darbā pieņemšanā, un tāpat izņemot viņu izaudzinātos jaunos darbiniekus, bet ne ilgāk kā septiņas dienas, tādiem virspavēlniekiem un karavīriem, kuri tiek pieņemti darbā, un viņu piesaistītajiem darbiniekiem) ir vēlēšanās šādus virsniekus vai karavīrus apgādāt ar svecēm, etiķi un sāli, un ar nelielu alu vai cideri, kas nepārsniedz piecas pintes, vai pusi pintes ruma, kas sajaukts ar litru ūdens, katram vīrietim dienas nauda, ​​bez maksas, un ļauj šādiem virsniekiem vai karavīriem izmantot uguni un nepieciešamos piederumus gaļas pārģērbšanai un ēšanai, un paziņo par savu vēlēšanos komandierim, kā arī attiecīgi un tādā gadījumā sniedz un atļauj to un tad šādā gadījumā pussargu virsniekus un karavīrus sniedz savus savus pārtikas produktus un virsnieku, kuram tas pieder, vai kurš faktiski saņem algu un iztikas naudu par diētu un nelielu alu, iepriekšminētajiem virsniekiem un karavīriem, nevis krodziniekam vai citai personai. kuriem šādi virspavēlnieki un karavīri ir sadalīti jebkurā šeit ietvertajā pretstatā, neskatoties uz to.

VII. Un tā kā viņa majestātes minētajās kundzībās Amerikā vairākās vietās ir vairākas kazarmas vai dažas no tām, ko nodrošina kolonijas, karavīru izmitināšanai un segšanai kvartālu vietā, lai atvieglotu un atvieglotu iedzīvotāju un šādās kolonijās, tāpat kā karavīriem, ar šo turpmāk tiek noteikts, ka visi šādi virsnieki un karavīri, kas ir ievietoti šādās kazarmās vai iznomāti neapdzīvotas mājas, piebūves, šķūņi vai citas ēkas, laiku pa laikam be furnished and supplied there by the persons to be authorized or appointed for that purpose by the governor and council of each respective province, or upon neglect or refusal of such governor and council in any province, then by two or more justices of the peace residing in or near such place, with fire, candles, vinegar, and salt, bedding, utensils for dressing their victuals, and small beer or cyder, not exceeding five pints, or half a pint of rum mixed with a quart of water, to each man, w ithout paying any thing for the same.

VIII. And that the several persons who shall so take, hire, and fit up as aforesaid, such uninhabited houses, out-houses, barns, or other buildings, for the reception of the officers and soldiers, and who shall so furnish the same, and also the said barracks, with fire, candles, vinegar, and salt, bedding, utensils for dressing victuals, and small beer, cyder, or rum, as aforesaid, may be reimbursed and paid all such charges and expences they shall be put to therein, be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the respective provinces shall pay unto such person or persons all such sum or sums of money so by them paid, laid out, or expended, for the taking, hiring, and fitting up, such uninhabited houses, out-houses, barns, or other buildings, and for furnishing the officers and soldiers therein, and in the barracks, with fire, candles, vinegar, and salt, bedding, utensils for dressing victuals, and small beer, cyder, or rum, as aforesaid and such sum or sums are hereby required to be rais ed, in such manner as the publick charges for the provinces respectively are raised.

IX. Provided always, and be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any officer, within his Majesty's said dominions of America, shall take, or cause to be taken, or knowingly suffer to be taken, any money, of any person, for excusing the quartering of officers or soldiers, or any of them, in any house allowed by this act every such officer shall be cashiered, and be incapable of serving in any military employment whatsoever.

X. And whereas some doubts may arise, whether commanding officers of any regiment or company, within his Majesty's said dominions in America, may exchange any men quartered in any village, town, township, city, district, or place, in his Majesty's said dominions in America, with another man quartered in the same place, for the benefit of the service be it declared and enacted by the authority aforesaid, That such exchange as above mentioned may be made by such commanding officers respectively, provided the number of men do not exceed the number at that time billeted on such house or houses and the constables, tithingmen, magistrates, and other chief officers of the villages, towns, townships, cities, districts, or other places where any regiment or company shall be quartered, are hereby required to billet such men so exchanged accordingly.

XI. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other chief officer or person whatsoever, who, by virtue or colour of this act, shall quarter or billet, or be employed in quartering or billeting, any officers or soldiers, within his Majesty's said dominions in America, shall neglect or refuse, for the space of two hours, to quarter or billet such officers of soldiers, when thereunto required, in such manner as is by this act directed, provided sufficient notice be given before the arrival of such forces or shall receive, demand, contract, or agree for, any sum or sums of money, or any reward whatsoever, for or on account of excusing, or in order to excuse, any person or persons whatsoever from quartering, or receiving into his, her, or their house or houses, any officer or soldier, or in case any victualler, or any other person within his Majesty's dominions in America, liable by this act to have any officer or soldier billeted or quartered on him or her, shall refuse to receive or victual any such officer or soldier so quartered or billeted upon him or her as aforesaid or in case any person or persons shall refuse to furnish or allow, according to the directions of this act, the several things herein before directed to be furnished or allowed to officers and soldiers, so quartered or billeted on him or her, or in the barracks, and hired uninhabited houses, out-houses, barns or other buildings, as aforesaid, at the rate herein after mentioned and shall be thereof convicted before one of the magistrates of any one of the supreme chief or principal common law courts of the colony where such offence shall be committed, either by his own confession, or by the oath of one or more credible witness or witnesses (which oath such magistrate of such court is hereby impowered to administrate) every such constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other chief officer or person so offending shall forfeit, for every such offence, the sum of five pounds sterling, or any sum of money not exceeding five pounds, nor less than forty shillings, as the said magistrate (before whom the matter shall be heard) shall in his discretion think fit to be levied by distress and sale of the goods of the person offending, by warrant under the hand and seal of such magistrate before whom such offender shall be convicted, to be directed to a constable or other officer within the village, town, township, city, district, or other place, where the offender shall dwell and shall direct the said sum of five pounds, or such other sum as shall be ordered to be levied in pursuance of this act as aforesaid, when levied, to be paid into the treasury of the province or colony where the offence shall be committed, to be applied towards the general charges of the said province or colony.

XII. And, that the quarters both of officers and soldiers, in his Majesty's said dominions in America, may hereafter be duly paid and satisfied, be it enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty fourth day of March, in the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty five, every officer to whom it belongs to receive, or that does actually receive, the pay or subsistence-money either for a whole regiment, or particular companies, or otherwise, shall immediately, upon each receipt of every particular sum which shall from time to time be paid, returned, or come to his or their hands, on account of pay or subsistence, give publick notice thereof to all persons keeping inns, or other places where officers or soldiers are quartered by virtue of this act: and shall also appoint the said innkeepers and others to repair to their quarters, at such times as they shall appoint for the distribution and payment of the said pay or subsistence money to the said officers or soldiers, which shall be within four days at farthest after receipt of the same as aforesaid, and the said inn-keepers and other shall then and there acquaint such officer or officers with the accounts or debts (if any shall be) between them and the officers and soldiers so quartered in their respective houses which account the said officer or officers are hereby required to accept of, and immediately pay the same, before any part of the said pay or subsistence be distributed either to the officers or soldiers provided the accounts exceed not for a commissions officer of foot, being under the degree of a captain, for such officers diet and small beer per diem, one shilling, and if such officer shall have a horse or horses, for each horse or horses, for their hay and straw per diem, six pence, nor for one foot soldier's diet and small beer, cyder, or rum mixed as aforesaid, per diem, four pence: and if any officer or officers as aforesaid shall not give notice as aforesaid, and not immediately, upon producing such account stated, satisfy, content, and pay the same, upon complaint and oath made thereof by any two witnesses, before two of his Majesty's justices for the village, town, township, city, district, or other place where such quarters were (which oath such justices are hereby authorized and required to administer) the paymaster or paymasters of his Majesty's guards and garrisons, upon certificate of the said justices before whom such oath was made, of the sum due upon such accounts, an the persons to whom the same is owing, are hereby required and authorized to pay and satisfy the said sums out of the arrears due to the said officer or officers upon penalty that such paymaster or paymasters shall forfeit their respective place or places of paymaster, and be discharged from holding the same for the future and in case there shall be no arrears due to the said officer or officers, then the said paymaster or paymasters are hereby authorized and required to deduct the sums, he or they shall pay pursuant to the certificates of the said justices, out of the next pay or subsistence money of the regiment to which such officer or officers shall belong: and such officer or officers shall, for every such offence, or for neglecting to give notice of the receipt of such pay or subsistence money as aforesaid, be deemed and taken, and is hereby declared, to be ipso facto cashiered.

XIII. And, where it shall happen that the subsistence money due to any officer or soldier, within his Majesty's said dominions in America, shall, by occasion of any accident, not be paid to such officer or soldier, or such officer or soldier shall neglect to pay the same, so that quarters cannot be or are not paid as this act directs and where any forces shall be upon their march, in his Majesty's dominions in America, so that no subsistence can be remitted to them to make payment as this act directs: or they shall neglect to pay the same in every such case, it is hereby further enacted, That every such officer shall before his or their departure out of his or their quarters, where such regiment, troop, or company shall remain for any time whatsoever, make up the accounts with every person with whom such regiment or company shall have quartered, and sign a certificate thereof, and give the said certificate, so by him signed, to the party to whom such money is due, with the name of such regim ent or company to which he or they shall belong, to the end the said certificate may be forthwith transmitted to the paymaster of his Majesty's guards and garrisons, who is hereby required immediately to make payment thereof to the person or persons to whom such money shall be due, to the end the same may be applied to such regiment or company respectively under pain as before in this act directed for nonpayment of quarters.

XIV, And, for better preventing abuses in quartering or billeting the soldiers in his Majesty's dominions in America, in pursuance of this act, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful to and for any one or more justices of the peace, or other officer, within their respective villages, towns, townships, cities, districts, or other places, in his Majesty's said dominions in America, by warrant or order under his or their hand and seal, or hands or seals, at any time or times during the continuance of this act, to require and command any constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other chief officer, who shall quarter or billet any soldiers in pursuance of this act, to give an account in writing unto the said justice or justices, or other officer requiring the same, of the number of officers and soldiers who shall be quartered or billeted by them and also the names of the house-keepers or persons upon whom, and the barracks and hired uninhabited houses, or other buildings as aforesaid, in which and where every such officer of soldiers shall be quartered or billeted, together with an account of the street or place where every such house-keeper or person dwells, and where every such barrack or hired uninhabited house or building is or are, and of the signs (if any) which belong to their houses to the end that it may appear to the said justice or justices or other officer, where such officers or soldiers are quartered or billeted, and that he or they may thereby be the better enabled to prevent or punish all abuses in the quartering or billeting them.

XV. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That for the better and more regular provision of carriages for his Majesty's forces in their marches, or for their arms, clothes, or accoutrements, in his Majesty's said dominions in America, all justices of the peace within their several villages, town, townships, cities, districts, and places, being duly required thereunto by an order from his Majesty, or the general of his forces, or of the general commanding, or the commanding officer there shall, as often as such order is brought and shewn unto one or more of them, by the quarter-master, adjutant, or other officer of the regiment, detachment, or company, so ordered to march, issue out his or their warrants to the constables, tithingmen, magistrates, or other officers of the villages, towns, townships, cities, districts, and other places, from, through, near, or to which such regiment, detachment, or company, shall be ordered to march, requiring them to make such provision for carriages, with able men to drive the same, as shall be mentioned in the said warrant: allowing them reasonable time to do the same, that the neighbouring parts may not always bear the burthen: and in case sufficient carriages cannot be provided within any such village, town, township, city, district, or other place, then the next justice, or justices of the peace of the village, town, township, city, district, or other place, shall, upon such order as aforesaid being brought or shewn to one or more of them, by any of the officers as aforesaid, issue his or their warrants to the constables, tithingman, magistrate, or other officers, of such next village, town, township, city, district, or other place, for the purposes aforesaid, to make up such deficiency and such constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other officer, shall order or appoint such person or persons, having carriages, within their respective villages, towns, townships, cities, districts, or other places, as they shall think proper to provide and furnish such carriages and men, according to the warrant aforesaid who are hereby required to provide and furnish the same accordingly.

XVI. And be it further enacted, That the pay or hire for a New York wagon, carrying twelve hundred pounds gross weight, shall be seven pence sterling for each mile and for every other carriage in that and every other colony in his Majesty's said dominions in America, in the same proportion and at or after the same rate or price for what weight every such other carriage shall carry and that the first day's pay or hire for every such carriage, shall be paid down by such officer to such constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other civil officer, who shall get or procure such carriages, for the use of the owner or owners thereof and the pay or hire for every such carriage after the first day, shall be paid every day, from day to day, by such officer as aforesaid, into the hands of the driver or drivers of such carriages respectively, until such carriages shall be discharged from such service, for the use of the owner and owners thereof.

XVII. Provided always, and be it further enacted, That no such wagon, cart, or carriage, impressed by authority of this act, shall be liable or obliged, by virtue of this act, to carry above twelve hundred weight any thing herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding.

XVIII. Provided also, That no such wagon, cart, or carriage, shall be obliged to travel more than one day's march, if, within that time, they shall arrive at any other place where other carriages may be procured but, in case other sufficient carriages cannot be procured, then such carriages shall be obliged to continue in the service till they shall arrive at such village, town, township, city, district, or other place, where proper and sufficient carriages, for the service of the forces, may be procured.

XIX. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other civil officer, within his Majesty's dominions in America, shall willfully neglect or refuse to execute such warrants of the justices of the peace, as shall be directed unto them for providing carriages as aforesaid or if any person or persons appointed by such constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other civil officer, to provide or furnish any carriage and man, shall refuse or neglect to provide the same, or any other person or persons whatsoever shall willfully do any act or thing whereby the execution of the said warrants shall be delayed, hindered, or frustrated every such constable, tithingman, magistrate, civil officer, or other person so offending, shall, for every such offence, forfeit any sum not exceeding forty shillings sterling, no less than twenty shillings, to be paid into the treasury of the province where any such offence shall be committed to be applied towards the aforesaid contingent charges of the province: and all and every such offence or offences, and all and every other offence or offences, in this act mentioned, and not otherwise provided, shall and may be inquired of, heard, and fully determined, by two of his majesty's justices of the peace dwelling in or near the village, town, township, city, district, or place, where such offence shall be committed who have hereby power to cause the said penalty to be levied by distress and sale of the offenders goods and chattels, rendering the overplus (if any) to the owner.

XX. And whereas the allowance hereby provided, for the payment of the carriages that may be necessary in the marching of troops, may not be a sufficient compensation for the same, to satisfy the constables, tithingmen, magistrates, and other civil officer, their charges and expences therein for remedy whereof, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That the constables, tithingmen, magistrates, and civil officers, procuring such carriages, shall pay a reasonable expence or price for every carriage so procured and that every such constable, tithingman, magistrate, civil officer, or other person, shall be repaid what he or they shall so expend, together with his or their own charges and expences attending the same, by the province or colony where the same shall arise.

XXI. Provided always, and be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That where it shall be necessary to take wagons or other carriages for long marches, beyond the settlements, an appraisement shall be made of the value of such horses and carriages, at the time of the taking them up to be employed in such marches beyond the settlements, by two indifferent persons, one to be chosen by the commanding officer of such forces, and the other by the owner of such cattle or carriages a certificate of which appraisement shall be given to the owner or owners of such cattle or carriages respectively: and in case any of the cattle or carriages, so taken up for such service, shall in the execution thereof, be lost or destroyed that then and in every such case, upon producing the said certificate and proper vouchers upon oath of such loss or destruction, to the paymaster general of his majesty's guards and garrisons, the said paymaster shall, and he is hereby required to pay to the respective own ers of such cattle or carriages, the sums specified, in such certificates and vouchers, to be the value of such cattle or carriages so lost or destroyed.

XXII. And whereas several soldiers, being duly enlisted in his Majesty's service, do often desert such service for remedy whereof, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That it shall and may be lawful to and for the constable, tithingman, magistrate, or other civil officer, of the village, town, township, city, district, or place, within the said dominions in America, where any person, who may be reasonably suspected to be such a deserter, shall be found, to apprehend, or cause him to be apprehended and to cause such person to be brought before any justice of the peace or other chief magistrate living in or near such village, town, township, city, district, or place, who hath hereby power to examine such suspected person and if by his confession, or testimony of one or more witness or witnesses upon oath, or the knowledge of such justice of the peace, or other magistrate, it shall appear, or be found, that such suspected person is a lifted soldier, and ought to be with the regiment or company to which he belongs, such justice of the peace or other magistrate shall forthwith cause him to be conveyed to the gaol of the village, town, township, city, district, county, or place where he shall be found, or to the house of correction or other publick prison in such village, town, township, city, district, county, or place, where such deserter shall be apprehended, and transmit an account thereof to the commander in chief of his Majesty's forces in the said dominions in America, or to the commanding officer of the forces posted nearest to such justice or justices, or other magistrate or magistrates, for the time being, to the end that such person may be proceeded against according to law: and the gaoler or keeper of such gaol, house of correction, or prison, shall receive the full subsistence of such deserter or deserters during the time that he or they shall continue in his custody for the maintenance of such deserter or deserters: but shall not be intitled to any fee or reward on account of the imprisonment of such deserter or deserters any law, usage, or custom to the contrary notwithstanding.

XXIII. Provided always, That if any person shall harbour, conceal, or assist, any deserter for his Majesty's service within his Majesty's said dominions in America, knowing him to be such, the person so offending, shall forfeit for every such offence, the sum of five pounds or if any person shall knowingly detain, buy or exchange, or otherwise receive, any arms, clothes, caps, or other furniture belonging to the King, from any soldier or deserter, or any other person, upon any account or pretence whatsoever, within his Majesty's dominions in America, or cause the colour of such clothes to be changed the person so offending shall forfeit, for every such offence, the sum of five pounds and upon conviction upon the oath of one or more credible witness or witnesses, before any of his Majesty's justices of the peace, the said respective penalties of five pounds, and five pounds, shall be levied by warrant under the hands of the said justice or justices of the peace, by distress and sale of the goods and chattels of the offenders one moiety of the said first-mentioned penalty of five pounds to be paid to the informer, by whose means such deserter shall be apprehended and one moiety of the said last mentioned penalty of five pounds to be paid to the informer and the residue of the said respective penalties to be paid to the officer to whom any such deserter or soldier did belong: and in case any such offenders, who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of harbouring or assisting any such deserter or deserters, or having knowingly received any arms, clothes, caps, or other furniture belonging to the King or having caused the colour of such clothes to be changed, contrary to the intent of this act, shall not have sufficient goods and chattels, whereon distress may be made, to the value of the penalties recovered against him for such offence, or shall not pay such penalties within four days after such conviction then, and in such case, such justice of the peace shall and may, by warrant under his hand and seal, commit such offender to the common gaol, there to remain, without bail or mainprize, for the space of three months, or cause such offender to be publickly whipt, at the discretion of such justice.

XXIV. And be it further enacted, That no commission officer shall break open any house, within his Majesty's dominions in America, to search for deserters, without a warrant from a justice of the peace, and in the day-time and that every commission officer who shall, in the night, or without warrant from one or more of his Majesty's justices of the peace (which said warrants the said justice or justices are hereby impowered to grant) forcibly enter into, or break open, the dwelling-house or out-houses of any person whatsoever under pretence of searching for deserters, shall, upon due proof thereof, forfeit the sum of twenty pounds.

XXV. And whereas several crimes and offenses have been and may be, committed by several person, not being soldiers, at several forts or garrisons, and several other places within his Majesty's dominions in America, which are not within the limits or jurisdiction of any civil government there hitherto established and which crimes and offenses are not properly cognizable or triable and punishable, by a court-martial, but by the civil magistrate by means whereof several great crimes and offenses may go unpunished, to the great scandal of government for remedy whereof, be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That from and after the twenty fourth day of March, one thousand seven hundred and sixty five, and for so long afterwards as this act shall continue in force, if any person or persons, not being a soldier or soldiers, do or shall commit any crime or crimes, or offence or offenses, in any of the said forts, garrisons, or places, within his Majesty's dominions in America, which are not within the limits or jurisdiction of any civil government hitherto established, it shall and may be lawful for any person or persons to apprehend such offender or offenders, and to carry, him, her, or them, before the commanding officer for the time being of his Majesty's forces there and such offender being charged upon oath in writing, before the said commanding officer, and which oath the said commanding officer is hereby impowered to administer, that then, and in every such case, the said commanding officer shall receive and take into his custody, and safely keep, every such offender, and shall convey and deliver, or cause to be conveyed and delivered, with all convenient speed, every such offender to the civil magistrate of the next adjoining province, together with the cause of his or her detainer, to be committed and dealt with by such civil magistrates or magistrate according to law and every such civil magistrate is hereby commanded and required to commit every such offender, that he or she may be dealt with according to law and in every such case, it shall and may be lawful to prosecute and try every such offender in the court of such province or colony, where crimes and offenses of the like nature are usually tried, and where the same would be properly tried in case such crime or offence had been committed within the jurisdiction of such court, and such crime shall and may be alleged to be committed within the jurisdiction of such court and such court shall and may proceed therein to trial, judgment, and execution, in the same manner as if the such crime or offence had been really committed within the jurisdiction of such court any law, usage, custom, matter, or thing, whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding,

XXVI. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That every bill, plaint, action, or suit, against any person or persons, for any act, matter, or thing, to be acted or done in pursuance of this act, or the said other in part recited act, in any of his Majesty' dominions in America, shall be brought and prosecuted in and before some principal court of record in the colony where such matter or thing shall be done or committed and in case the same shall not be done or committed within the jurisdiction of any such court, then in the court of the colony next to the place where the same shall be done and committed, and in no other court whatsoever.

XXVII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That where any troops or parties upon command have occasion in their march, in any of his Majesty's dominions in America, to pass regular ferries, it shall and may be lawful for the commanding officer either to pass over with his party as passenger, or to hire the ferry-boat entire to himself and his party, debarring others for that time in his option and in case he shall chuse to take passage for himself and party as passengers he shall only pay for himself and for each person, officer, or soldier, under his command, half of the ordinary rate payable by single persons at any such ferry and in case he shall hire the ferry-boat for himself and party, he shall pay half of the ordinary rate for such boat or boats and in such places where there are no regular ferries, but that all passengers hire boats at the rate they can agree for, officers with or without parties are to agree for boats at the rates that other persons do in the like cases.

XXVIII. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That all sum and sums of money mentioned in this act, and all penalties and forfeitures whatsoever to be incurred or forfeited for any offence, cause, matter, or thing whatsoever, to be done, committed, or omitted to be done in his Majesty's colonies and dominions in America, contrary to the true intent and meaning of this act, shall be, and shall be paid and forfeited in lawful money of the colony or place where the same shall be forfeited or become due, at the rate of four shillings and eight pence sterling money for a Spanish milled dollar, and not otherwise.

XXIX. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That if any action, bill, plaint, or suit, shall be brought or commenced against any person or persons for any act, matter, or thing, done or acted in pursuance of this act, that it shall and may be lawful to and for all and every person or persons so sued to plead thereto the general issue that he or they are not guilty, and to give the special matter in evidence to the jury who shall try the cause and if the verdict therein shall pass for the defendant or defendants, or the plaintiff or plaintiffs therein shall become nonsuit, or suffer a discontinuance, or by any other means judgment therein shall be given for the defendants or defendant therein that in every such case the justice or justices, or other judge or judges of the court in which such action shall be brought shall by force and virtue of this act allow unto such defendant or defendants his or their treble costs, which he or they shall have sustained, or be put to, by reason of the defence of such suit, for which cost such defendant and defendants shall have the like remedy as in other cases where costs are by the law given to defendants.

XXX. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid, That this act and every thing herein contained, shall continue and be in force in all his Majesty's dominions in America, from the twenty fourth day of March, in the year one thousand seven hundred and sixty five, until the twenty fourth day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and sixty seven.


The Quartering Act

Perhaps none of the punitive acts passed by the British parliament to quell the rebellious activities occurring in the colonies during the buildup to the Revolutionary War were quite as personal as the Quartering Act of 1774. While other acts dealt with taxation, regulation, trade, and the administration of justice, the Quartering Act actually dealt with the disposition of armed British soldiers in the colonies. The Quartering Act specified the conditions for the lodging of British troops in all of colonial North America. However, there are many misconceptions about the Quartering Act.

The Quartering Act of 1774 was not the first British quartering act. With an empire that stretched across the world, the British needed to quarter troops in countries all around the globe. Though many British soldiers had stayed in the American colonies during the French and Indian War (1754-1763), some continued to stay in the colonies following the conflict. Having a standing regular army in colonial cities during peacetime began to lead to resentment and anger among the colonial leaders. While in London, this force was viewed as a necessary evil to help secure the borders of the British North American empire.

"The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor." Nathaniel Currier

In 1765, Parliament passed an amendment to the Mutiny Act, which became known as the Quartering Act of 1765. Contrary to popular belief, this Quartering Act did not direct British soldiers to be billeted in the private homes of the colonists. The 1765 act actually prohibited British soldiers from being quartered in private homes, but it did make the colonial legislatures responsible for paying for and providing for barracks or other accommodations to house British regulars. Other accommodations the colonists could billet British troops in included “inns, livery stables, ale houses” and other public houses.

British soldiers had been housed in New York and other American cities but were generally forced to stay in military barracks. In the city of Boston, the placement of British troops constantly was an issue as the city tried to keep them farther from the center of the city, while the British officers pushed to have them closer among the townsfolk.

Relationships between British soldiers and colonial civilians were often tense and occasionally boiled over into violence, especially in Boston. In the most famous incident, on March 5, 1770, after a few heated exchanges, a group of British soldiers fired into a crowd of Bostonians killing five and wounding six in an event that would be branded as the Boston Massacre.

As tensions continued to grow between the soldiers and civilians, the people of Boston continued to fight back against the British attempts to tax and control them. This culminated in December of 1773 when numerous Bostonians, in an act of defiance, dumped thousands of pounds of British tea into Boston Harbor.

In 1774, following the infamous Boston Tea Party, the British Parliament passed four acts known as the Coercive Acts. The first three acts closed the port of Boston, took away Massachusetts’ ability to self-govern, and removed their ability to administer justice to British soldiers in the colony. The last act passed was the Quartering Act of 1774 which applied not just to Massachusetts, but to all the American colonies, and was only slightly different than the 1765 act. This new act allowed royal governors, rather than colonial legislatures, to find homes and buildings to quarter or house British soldiers. This only further enraged the colonists by having what appeared to be foreign soldiers boarded in American cities and taking away their authority to keep the soldiers distant.

As it had been an ongoing debate in colonial British America, the 1774 act sought to clarify and expand the British ability to quarter troops in American cities. It stated upfront that “doubts have been entertained whether troops can be quartered otherwise than in barracks” and the Royal governor had the right to use “uninhabited houses, outhouses, barns, or other buildings” to quarter soldiers. While “other buildings” could be open to broad interpretation, contrary to popular belief, the 1774 act (like the 1765 act) did not mandate that British soldiers stay in the occupied private homes of American colonists. In fact, it specifically prohibited it.

The author of the Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson.

Regardless, the American colonists were enraged by the Quartering Act along with the other Coercive Acts and they were quickly rebranded “The Intolerable Acts.” The Quartering Act was also especially reviled as it applied not just to rebellious Boston or Massachusetts but to all of the American colonies. Leaders in other colonies began to wonder what other punishments Great Britain may place on them for actions they were not responsible for.

The British troops continued to be quartered in Boston and on April 19, 1775, large scale bloodshed between British regular soldiers and Massachusetts militiamen broke out at the Battles of Lexington and Concord that began the American War for Independence.

A year later in July of 1776, Thomas Jefferson included the Quartering Act in the Declaration of Independence in a list of the “repeated injuries and usurpations.” Among those grievances against King George III was that he “kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures” and was “quartering large bodies of armed troops among us.” Though he was not referring to soldiers being stationed inside inhabited private homes, the very presence of armies stationed in American cities during peacetime was a threat to American liberty.

The relationship between armed soldiers and the civilian governments became a central issue of the American Revolution. As the new United States of America formed its own army to defend the former colonies, it became paramount that this military bend to the will of the civilian government to ensure the military could not be used against the people. This was something George Washington would be especially sensitive to and would be sure to defer to civilian authority.

Following the successful conclusion of the Revolutionary War, the issue of continuing to have a standing army during peacetime was fiercely debated. Many anti-Federalists in the early republic era would argue that the United States did not need a standing army during peacetime. As that debate continued in the new United States Congress, the issue of having soldiers stationed in American cities was agreed by all to be unacceptable.


1766 to 1767

Repeal of the Stamp Act. Although some in Parliament thought the army should be used to enforce the Stamp Act (1765), others commended the colonists for resisting a tax passed by a legislative body in which they were not represented. The act was repealed, and the colonies abandoned their ban on imported British goods.

Declaratory Act. The repeal of the Stamp Act did not mean that Great Britain was surrendering any control over its colonies. The Declaratory Act, passed by Parliament on the same day the Stamp Act was repealed, stated that Parliament could make laws binding the American colonies "in all cases whatsoever."

Resistance to the Quartering Act in New York. New York served as headquarters for British troops in America, so the Quartering Act (1765) had a great impact on New York City. When the New York Assembly refused to assist in quartering troops, a skirmish occurred in which one colonist was wounded. Parliament suspended the Assembly's powers but never carried out the suspension, since the Assembly soon agreed to contribute money toward the quartering of troops.

Townshend Acts. To help pay the expenses involved in governing the American colonies, Parliament passed the Townshend Acts, which initiated taxes on glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.

Nonimportation. In response to new taxes, the colonies again decided to discourage the purchase of British imports.

"Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania to the Inhabitants of the British Colonies." Originally published in a newspaper, this widely reproduced pamphlet by John Dickinson declared that Parliament could not tax the colonies, called the Townshend Acts unconstitutional, and denounced the suspension of the New York Assembly as a threat to colonial liberties.


Skatīties video: Līvānu Eiropas parlamenta vēstnieku skola (Jūnijs 2022).