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Blisvorta griešana

Blisvorta griešana


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1833. gadā Roberts Stefensons tika iecelts par Londonas un Birmingemas līnijas galveno inženieri. Šis bija pirmais dzelzceļš uz Londonu, un tas ietvēra sarežģītu inženiertehnisko problēmu risināšanu. Viens no grūtākajiem bija Blisvortā netālu no Northemptonas. Stīvensona navvju komandai nācās nogriezties cauri 1,5 jūdžu klintīm. Zem augšējā akmens slāņa bija bieza māla gulta, zem kuras tika atrasts liels ūdens daudzums. Ūdens izsūknēšanai tika izmantoti tvaika dzinēji, un katrā griešanas galā tika novietotas divas lokomotīves, lai aizvilktu izrakto akmeni un mālu. Kamēr tas notika, 800 vīri bija aizņemti ar rakšanu, riteņiem un spridzināšanu. Līdz griešanas beigām tika izmantotas vairāk nekā 3000 mucas šaujampulvera. Tika aprēķināts, ka Blisworth Cutting tika izrakts, iegūts vai izrakts vairāk nekā miljons kubikmetru materiāla.


BLISWORTH

Blidesworde (xi centi) Bliseworthe (xii centi.) Bledesworth, Blithesworth (xiii centi.) Blysworth, Bleseworth (xiv centi.).

Blisvortas pagasts aptver 1 980 akrus, un augsne svārstās no stipra māla līdz vieglai jauktai augsnei un pret koku melnam smilšmālim. Pagasts ir pārpilns ar kaļķakmeni un dzelzsakmeni rūdai ir izņemti lieli daudzumi. Zeme dod lieliskas ražas. Iedzīvotāju skaits ir tuvu 800. Dzelzceļa stacija L.M.S. galvenajā līnijā. atrodas apmēram trīs ceturtdaļas jūdzes no ciemata. Desmit gadus (līdz filiāles līnijas izbūvei saskaņā ar 1843. gada aktu) Blisvorta bija Northemptonas stacija. Grand Union kanāls iet cauri Blisvortai un caur 1¾ jūdzes garu tuneli iet uz blakus esošo Stoke Bruerne pagastu. Šis tunelis tika uzcelts 1806. gadā, un darbuzņēmējs, kurš bija pazīstams kā “Bārnsa Bārnijs”, bija cilvēks, kurš nevarēja ne lasīt, ne rakstīt, un viņš veica visus savus aprēķinus un aprēķinus pēc atmiņas.

Ciematā ir daudzas 17. un 18. gadsimta sākuma mājas, galvenokārt no jaukta brīva un dzelzs akmens, ar salmu vai šīfera jumtiem. Klēts ar stāvu slīpu jumtu ciemata austrumu galā frontonā ir panelis ar uzrakstu “1663 G.B.” Dažām mājām ir savi logi, bet vairumā gadījumu logi ir mainīti.

Ciematā ir baptistu kapela, kas celta 1825. gadā, ministra rezidence un 1865. gadā tiek pievienota kapsēta, un lekciju zāle - 1885. gadā.

Muiža

Domesday aptaujas laikā Viljams Pīrels turēja ½ slēpņus BLISWORTH. (fn. 1) Pēc viņa nāves 1114. gadā zeme tika nodota viņa dēlam Viljamam Pīvelam, kurš turēja Northemptonshire Survey laikā. (2. lpp.) Viņš nodeva savas zemes nodevībai, un 1157. gada Miķeļdienā karalis piešķīra Robertam de Peisijam zemi Blisvortā un Ņūbotlā, kuras gada vērtība bija 43 sterliņu mārciņas. (fn. 3) 1181. gadā viņa dēls Roberts turēja Blisvortu (fn. 4), bet nākamajā gadā viņu pārņēma Viljams Roberta dēls. (5. lpp.) 1189. gadā Ričards I piešķīra Blisvortas valdīšanu savam brālim Džonam Mortaina grāfam, kuram muiža piederēja līdz 1194. gadam, kad ķēniņš atsāka iegūt Pēvera godu. Tajā laikā Metjū de Klērs turēja Newbottle un Blisworth, kuru gada vērtība bija 43 mārciņas. (fn. 6) 1199. gadā karalis, pretī samaksājot, piešķīra Derbija grāfam Viljamam Ferersam, Mārgaretas mazdēlam, Viljama Pīrela jaunākā mantiniecei, simtnieka valdnieku. 2000 marku. (7. lpp.) Izabella, Roberta de Peisija atraitne, iesūdzēja tiesā Ferera grāfu par šiem īpašumiem, taču lietu noraidīja, jo Izabelei nebija nekādu tiesību uz šo zemi, izņemot viņas vīru, kuram tas bija ar Henrija II dotāciju. viņa rokās bija Pītera gods. (8. lpp.) Viljams de Ferers nomira 1247. gadā, un viņa pēctecis bija viņa dēls Viljams Ērls no Derbijas, kurš nomira 1254. gadā, atstājot dēlu Robertu, kurš dzimis 1239. gadā. Viņš saņēma zemes atmaksu 1260. gadā, bet zaudēja tās sešus gadus vēlāk, kad Pivera gods tika piešķirts Edmundam Ērklam no Lankasteras un tika iekļauts Lankasteras hercogistē.

Pamosties. Vai divi stieņi gules ar trīs apaļiem gules galvenajā.

Viljams Ērls no Derbijas piešķīra Blisvortas muižu un baznīcas padomdevēju Viljamam Briverrei par pusmaksu, un šo dotāciju 1199. gadā apstiprināja karalis Džons. (9. lpp.) Nākamajā gadā Briwerrei tika dota atļauja assart 60 akrus meža pie Blisvortas. (fn. 10) 1212. gadā viņam tika piešķirti kokmateriāli no Lesteršīras meža, lai Blisvortā uzbūvētu pagrabu un kameru (11. lpp.), un nākamajā gadā viņam bija licence apstrādāt vēl 30 hektārus vairāk meža. (12. lpp.) 1220. gadā viņam tika piešķirti 24 stumbri stabiem un kvadrātveida sijām un 2 blēži no Salcey Forest par savu māju pārbūvi Blisworthā. (13. lpp.) Pēc viņa nāves 1227. gadā muiža nonāca pie viņa dēla Viljama, kurš nomira 1232. gadā, Blisvortu iedalot viņa atraitnei Džoanai. (14. lpp.) Nākamajā gadā muiža tika nodota Viljamam De Percym viņa meitu vārdā - piektdaļas Viljama Briwerre īpašuma līdzmantinieki. (15. lpp.) Šķiet, ka Džoana tomēr ir saglabājusi muižas īpašumu, kas pēc viņas nāves 1265. gadā (16. lpp.) nāca pie sera Boldvina Veika, Izabellas Briverres mazdēla, Viljama un Boldvina sievas māsas un līdzmantinieka. Bornas modināšana. Viņš piedalījās kopā ar baroniem pret Henriju III, par kuru nodarījumu karalis piešķīra savu Blisvortas muižu Alanam Plugenetam, kurš to turēja 1266. gadā. frankpledge un citas privilēģijas tur 1276. gadā. (18. lpp.)

Sers Boldvins esot miris 1282. gada 4. februārī, (19. lpp.), Un 20. jūlijā karalis izdarīja muižu, kuras vērtība bija 32 £ 8s., Philip Burnel. (20. lpp.) Baldvina dēls un mantinieks Džons no otrās sievas Hawise de Quincy, būdams nepilngadīgs, karalis 1282. gada 27. oktobrī piešķīra aizbildnību par savām zemēm Northemptonshire Edmundam grāfam Kornvolas pilsētā. (21. f.) nākamgad Hawise Wake cēla prasību pret grāfu, apgalvojot, ka viņa un viņas vīrs tika kopīgi konfiscēti muižā, taču lieta tika noraidīta, jo kopīgā pārvietošana nebija pienācīgi veikta. (22. lpp.) Jānis kļuva pilngadīgs 1295. gada janvārī, (23. lpp.), un pirms nāves 1300. gadā atcēla savu tēvoci seru Hjū Veiku no Deipinga par pusmaksu Blisvortā, rezervējot sev baznīcas padomu un ikgadēju īres maksa £ 10 no muižas. (24. lpp.) Pēc nāves 1315. gadā (25. lpp.) sera Hjū Veika pēctecis bija viņa dēls Tomass, kuram 1330. gada 22. februārī Blisvortā tika piešķirts bezmaksas karavīrs. (26. lpp.) Tajā pašā gadā viņš aizstāvēja savas tiesības apskatīt frankpledge muižā. (27. lpp.) Viņš apprecējās ar Elizabetes meitu un Hjū Kranslija mantinieku, un ap 1346. gadu (28. lpp.) viņa pēctecis bija viņa dēls sers Tomass Veiks, Alises māsas vīrs un Viljama de Pateshull līdzmantinieks. (29. lpp.) Viņš dzīvoja 1379. gada septembrī, (30. lpp.), bet, iespējams, drīz nomira, atstājot Blisvortu sievai uz visu mūžu. Pēc viņas nāves 1398. gadā viņas vietā stājās viņas mazdēls Tomass, vecākais pārdzīvojušais dēla Tomasa dēls (31. lpp.), Kurš bija miris 1383. gada augustā. (32. lpp.) Viņš bija precējies ar sera māsu Margaretu Filipu. Džons Filips, Londonas pilsonis un pārtikas preču tirgotājs, kuram Rihards II 1383. gada septembrī bija piešķīris sera Tomasa Veika mantinieka zemes un laulības. (33. lpp.) Tomass Veiks nomira pirms 1425. gada, un muiža tika nodota viņa dēlam Tomasam. tad apmēram 23 gadus vecs. (34. lpp.) Viņš apprecējās ar Agnesas meitu un Tomasa Lovela mantinieci no Klevedonas, Somersetā, un nomira 1458. gada 10. septembrī, (35. lpp.), pēc viņa dēla Tomasa, kurš piedzima apmēram 1434. gadā. Viņa pirmā sieva, kuras vārds nav zināms, viņam bija divi vai trīs dēli, no kuriem vecākais Rodžers pēc viņa nāves nāca 1476. gada maijā. (36. lpp.) Kā Riharda III sekotājs viņu ieguva Henrijs VII, viņa muiža Blisvortā. tiek piešķirts seram Džeimsam Bluntam. (37. lpp.) Pēc tam viņa zemes tika atjaunotas ar parlamenta aktu 1487. gadā. (38. lpp.) Viņš nomira 1504. gada 16. martā, savas dzīves laikā atstājot Blisvortas muižu savai sievai Elizabetei. (39. lpp.) Pēc tam viņa apprecējās ar seru Džonu Greju, Dorsetas Tomasa Markesas ceturto dēlu, un viņas pēctecis bija viņas dēls Tomass Veiks, kurš 1522. vai 1523. gadā pārdeva Blisvortas muižu seram Ričardam Naitlijam no Folslija. (fn. 40) Ričards nomira 1535. gada decembrī, atstājot Blisvortu savam jaunākajam dēlam seram Edmundam Naitlijam un sievai Uršulai. (41. lpp.) Viņi muižu 1542. gadā piešķīra Henrijam VIII apmaiņā pret citu īpašumu (42. lpp.), un tā tika iekļauta jaunizveidotajā Grāftona godā. (43. lpp.) Muižas pārvaldnieks tika piešķirts seram Džonam Viljamsam 1545. gadā. (44. lpp.)

Fitzroy, Grafton hercogs. Karaļa Čārlza II ieroči ar briesmīga bastona gobonija argenta un debeszils atšķirību.

1592. vai 1593. gadā muižas vieta tika piešķirta Tomasam Endrjū no Čārveltonas (45. lpp.), Kura mazdēls Tomass tur dzīvoja 1618. gadā. (Fn. 46) 1628. gadā Blisvorta ar vēl desmit muižām tika nodota seram Franciskam. Mortlake gobelēna darbu vadītājs Krāns kā nodrošinājums aizdevumam 7500 sterliņu mārciņu apmērā tika izsniegts Kronai. (47. lpp.) Pēc septiņiem gadiem muižas teritorija tika iznomāta seram Robertam Kukam uz trīsdesmit vienu gadu. (48. lpp.) Kronu muižu apsekojumā, kas tika veikts 1660. gadā, Blisvortā tika atzīmēts, ka tajā ir 894½ akri aramzemes, 405 akri ganību un nav pļavu. (49. (50. lpp.) Tomēr 1673. gadā karalis Blisvortu atdeva Henrijam Ērlam Arlingtonam, bet pārējo-viņa dēlam netvertajam Henrijam Ficrojam (51. lpp.), kuram izdevās gūt panākumus 1685. gadā. Viņš tika izveidots par hercogu. Graftons 1675. gadā, un Blisvorts palika pēcnācēju rokās līdz 1919. gadam, kad tika pārdota lielākā daļa Northemptonshire hercogu Graftonas muižu.

Baznīca

Gada baznīca ST. JĀNS KRISTĪTĀJS sastāv no kanceles, 30 pēdas 4 m. līdz 18 pēdām 8 collu krestoriskā nave, 61 pēdas 6 collas līdz 18 pēdām 8 collas ziemeļu un dienvidu ejas, 11 pēdas 6 collas plata ziemeļu lievenis un rietumu tornis, 9 pēdas 10 collas līdz 9 pēdas 6 collas, visi šie mērījumi ir iekšēji. Ziemeļu eja ir visas piecas nabas līča garums, bet dienvidu eja (52. lpp.) Ir tikai trīs līči. Platums pāri nai un ejām ir 47 pēdas 2 collas.

Ēka parasti ir no aptuveni kaļķakmens, kas tornī sajaukta ar vietējo dzelzs akmeni. Kanceles un navas jumti ir apšūti, ejām - svina, un lievenis ir pārklāts ar mūsdienu flīzēm. Kancelei un ejām ir taisni parapeti: naba jumta pārkares. Iekšpusē, izņemot torni, visas sienas ir apmestas.

Baznīca tika atjaunota 1855. – 6. Gadā, kad tika noņemta galerija un soli pārvērsti atklātos solos, un 1871. gadā grīdas tika bruģētas ar enkaustiskām flīzēm. Dienvidu eja tika pārbūvēta 1926. gadā.

Kancele un trīs jūras austrumu līči pieder 13. gadsimta beigu eju baznīcai, kuras nava un ziemeļu eja tika paplašinātas uz rietumiem, eja tika pārbūvēta un, iespējams, tika paplašināta aptuveni 1320. – 30. Gadā. 14. gadsimtā. Dienvidu eja, šķiet, ir tās sākotnējais platums, un tās austrumu galā ir kapela, ko no pārējiem atdala 13. gadsimta šķērsvirziena arka, un ar jumtu taisnā leņķī pret nabu ar divslīpju uz dienvidiem. Arī ziemeļu un dienvidu (53. lpp.) Durvju ailes ir datētas ar 13. gadsimtu ar malām. Izņemot lieveni, kas, šķiet, tika pievienots vai pārbūvēts 15. gadsimtā, turpmākās plāna izmaiņas netika veiktas. Tomēr 15. gadsimtā kancelejā tika ievietoti jauni logi un uzcelta vai rekonstruēta karkass.

Kancele sastāv no diviem līčiem, un tai ir divi 13. gadsimta logi dienvidu pusē, dienvidu siena būtībā ir no tā laika, bet 14. gadsimtā austrumu un ziemeļu sienas tika pilnībā pārbūvētas vai atjaunotas. Smagajā piecu gaismu austrumu logā ir neparasta veida slīpums (54. lpp.), Kas, iespējams, ir no šī datuma, un leņķa balsti ir novietoti pa diagonāli: nošķelts cokols un virkne sastopami tikai ziemeļos un austrumos. Ziemeļu pusē abi līči ir vienādi, un katrā no tiem ir 15. gadsimta smails logs ar trim cinquefoiled gaismām ar vertikālu slīpumu un bloķēta durvju aile rietumu līcī, bet dienvidu pusē līči ir nevienlīdzīgi. No diviem iepriekšējiem smailiem logiem dienvidu sienā vistālāk uz austrumiem ir divi neslīpēti smaili lukturi ar trīskāršu apli galvā, un tiem ir dubultās šķautnes un aplokšņa pārsegs. Pēc rakstura tas ir agrāks par otru, kam ir arī divi lukturi, bet ar dakšveida izgriezumu un aplokiem ir doba ārējā šķautne, bet viss iepriekšējais darbs baznīcā ir tāda veida, kas, šķiet, dominēja Northemptonshire no plkst. apmēram no 1260. līdz 1300. gadam un pat vēlāk, kam ir grūti precīzi noteikt datumu bez dokumentāriem pierādījumiem. Tālāk uz rietumiem, tā palodze ir ievērojami augstāka par pārējām, ir ievietots 15. gadsimta trīs gaismu logs, kas līdzīgs tiem, kas atrodas pretī, un zemākā līmenī kanceles dienvidrietumu leņķī vienkāršs taisnstūrveida zemas puses logs, kas tagad ir bloķēts. (55. lpp.) Pretējā sienā, ziemeļrietumu leņķī, ir mazāka 15. gadsimta datuma aizsprostota zema sānu atvere ar trepolētu galvu un taisnstūrveida kapuci, kas plaši izplatās uz austrumiem iekšpusē. (56. lpp.) 13. gadsimta beigās piscīnai ir vienkārša dubultā doba cauruma padziļinājums un izvirzīta bļodiņa, kuru atbalsta vārpsta ar lietu kapitālu. Sedilijas nav. Kanceles dienvidrietumu leņķī no ejas ir šķībs, tagad bloķēts. (57. lpp.) Zemā, plaši izplatītā kanceles arka ir 14. gadsimta rekonstrukcijas laikmetīgā ēka, kuras rietumu daļā ir divi nošķelti ordeņi. Ir labs 15. gadsimta ozola kanāla siets ar marķētām atverēm, vienkāršiem apakšējiem paneļiem un veidotu augšpusi. Kioski ir daudz atjaunoti. Balasta altāra sliedes acīmredzot ir datētas ar 17. gadsimta beigām. Kanceles jumts ir mūsdienīgs. (58. lpp.) 15. gadsimta jumta bēniņu kāpnes ir saglabājušās ļoti ideālā stāvoklī kanceles arkas ziemeļu pusē, nama pasāžas austrumu galā, un siena šim nolūkam ir sabiezēta. Apakšējā durvju aile ir četru centru, bet augšējā-kvadrātveida ar izciļņiem. (59. lpp.)

13. gadsimta beigu dienvidu pasāža sastāv no trim smailām arkām ar divām nošķeltām kārtām, ar kapuci veidnē katrā pusē, kas izriet no astoņstūra pīlāriem ar lietiņiem un pamatnēm un līdzīga rakstura reakcijām. Pamatnēm ir divkāršs rullis, izņemot rietumu reaģējošo, kas nav veidots, un lielie burti nedaudz atšķiras sīkāk, jo rietumu pīlāra apakšējā daļa, kurā zem abakusa ir sīku un četrkāju josla. Trīs atbilstošās nedaudz agrāk esošās ziemeļu arkādes arkas ir ar tādu pašu vispārējo raksturu, bet pamatnes ir nošķeltas un uz kvadrātveida cokoliem, un galvaspilsētas ir mazākas. Kad pasāža tika paplašināta uz rietumiem, vecā atbilde tika izmantota atkārtoti un uzcelti divi jauni pīlāri un arkas. Jaunie līči turpināja vispārējo dizainu, bet kapitālu un pamatņu līstes norāda to vēlāko datumu.

Dienvidu eja ir bez balstiem, un, lai gan pārbūvēta, saglabājas liela daļa no tās bijušā rakstura. Arka, kas sadala kapelu tās austrumu galā no pārējās ejas, sastāv no diviem slīpiem ordeņiem, kas nāk no arkādes austrumu piestātnes un no atbildes ar lielo kapitālu. Kapela dienvidu galā ir izgaismota ar lielu kvadrātveida galvu ar piecām gaismām ar izliektiem stendiem un izciļņiem (60. lpp.), Zem kura iekšpusē ir novēlota sienas padziļinājums ar plakanu veidotu ogee arku. (61. lpp.) Bijusī piscina ir pazudusi. Eju apgaismo arī mūsdienīgs smails divu gaismu logs, uz rietumiem no tā ir durvju aile. Navas dienvidu sienā, starp eju un torni, ir smails logs, kurā sākotnēji bija trīs gaismas, kuru saknes ir noņemtas.

Ziemeļu ejai ir neliels diagonāls balsts ziemeļrietumu leņķī, un to apgaismo trīs logi ziemeļu sienā un viens katrā galā. Austrumu logs ir kvadrātveida ar trīs gaismām, acīmredzot 15. gadsimta ieliktnis, un rietumu galā ir arī kvadrātveida galva, bet divi lukturi, un tas ir mainīts un apakšējā daļa ir bloķēta. Neliels smails logs ziemeļu sienā uz rietumiem no lieveņa ir no divām trepolētām gaismām ar dubultām šķautnēm un kapuci, bet divu lielāku logu uzgaļi uz austrumiem no lieveņa ir atjaunoti. 13. gadsimta beigās smailās durvju ailes ir nepārtraukti veidotas. Ejas austrumu galā ir jāpārbauda, ​​vai nav vesti.

Lievenim ir jumts ar augstu slīpumu, kura abos galos stāv virs gaiteņa jumta, un smaila ārējā arka ar nepārtrauktām līstēm augšējā frontonā ir akmens ar uzrakstu “a.d. 1607. g., P.m.ē. ”

Skapim ir trīs plaši izvietoti četru centru logi ar divām cinquefoiled lukturiem katrā pusē, kas novietoti, neievērojot zemāk esošās arkas. Mūsdienu koka jumta jumtam ir seši līči.

Tornis sastāv no trim posmiem, kas sadalīti ar stīgām, ar veidotu cokolu un četrpakāpju balstu pāriem rietumu leņķī, kas sasniedz otrā posma augšdaļu, virs kura ir nelieli diagonāli balsti. Apakšējā stadijā ir atjaunots smails rietumu logs ar divām trefoiled gaismām, bet ziemeļu un dienvidu malas ir tukšas. Vidējā pakāpiena abās pusēs ir neliela atverota atvere, kas ziemeļos tagad ir pārklāta ar pulksteņa ciparnīcu, un smailie zvanu kameras logi ir no divām trepolētām gaismām ar četrstūri galvā. Tornis beidzas ar kaujas parapetu bez virsotnēm. Nav nekāda netikuma. Smagā arka līdz nabai sastāv no divām nepārtrauktām nošķeltām kārtām ar kapuci veidnē austrumu pusē un vienu kārtu rietumos.

Fonts ir sens un sastāv no vienkāršas apļveida spaiņveida bļodas (62. lpp.) Uz cilindriska pjedestāla un pamatnes un astoņstūra pakāpiena. (63. lpp.)

Koka kancele ir moderna. Džordža III (pirms 1801. gada) karaliskās rokas atrodas virs torņa arkas.

Kancelejas ziemeļrietumu loga atverē atrodas viduslaiku stikla daļas. (64. lpp.)

Rodžera Veika (miris 1503. – 4. G.) Un viņa sievas Elizabetes Keitbijas galda kaps atrodas zem kapelas dienvidu loga, izliektās sienas padziļinājuma priekšā, un tas ir izgatavots no brīvā akmens ar Purbekas marmora plāksni virsū. Sānos ir paneli ar ieroču vairogiem. Uz plātnes ir Rodžera un viņa sievas misiņi ar septiņu dēlu un trīs meitu grupām zemāk, vairogs katrā leņķī un misiņa uzraksts ap malu šādi: “Šeit skan Rodžers Veiks Eskjers Lords no Blysvortas apgabalā. no Northemptonas un Elīzabeta viņa vībe. . . kuru Rodžers marta xvj dienā pasludināja par mūsu Kunga Dieva M o ccccciij, uz kura dvēseles Ihū ir m'cy. ' (65. lpp.)

Kancelejā atrodas sienas pieminekļi Mārgaretai Bleikijai (fn. 66.) (dz. 1673. g.) Un Rebekai Kaitsai (mir. 1679. g.), Rektora Džonatana Jeitsa sievai. Navā ir piemiņas zīme divdesmit trim pagasta vīriem, kuri krituši 1914. – 18.

Kanceles dienvidu pusē apakšējā loga rietumu aplokā ir ieskrāpēts ciparnīca.

Ir piecu zvanu gredzens, otrais un trešais - Bartolomejs Attons no Bekingemas 1624. gadā, ceturtais Henrijs Baglijs III 1713. gadā, bet pirmais un piektais - Tomass Ejērs no Ketteringa 1758. (67. lpp.).

Šķīvis sastāv no 1570. gada krūzes, 17. gadsimta patena (c. 1636. g.), 1845. gada kauss un patens, 1846. gada žēlsirdības ēdiens un 1870. gada karogs. (68. lpp.)

Reģistri pirms 1812. gada ir šādi: (i) visi ieraksti 1545. – 1703. Gada janvāris – 4. . Ieraksti pirmajā sējumā ir nepilnīgi līdz aptuveni 1557. gadam.

Baznīcas ziemeļu pusē pie takas, kas ved uz lieveni, atrodas baznīcas pagalma krusta pakāpieni un ligzdas akmens. (69. lpp.)

Advowson

Prezentācijas tiesības baznīcai Derbija grāfs piešķīra Viljamam Briverram, un to apstiprināja karalis Džons 1199. gadā. Padomnieks kopā ar muižu nodeva seram Boldvinam Veikam par Džoana Brivera nāvi. Kad viņa dēls Džons nodeva muižu savam tēvocim Hjū Veikam, viņš paturēja muižā padomu un īri 10 sterliņu mārciņu apmērā. Padoms un īre tika nodota viņa māsai un mantiniecei Mārgaretai, Edmunda Vudstokas sievai, Kentas grāfai, kuras dēls Džons Ērls no Kentas nomira, viņus sagrābjot 1352. gadā. (70. lpp.) Viņa mantinieks bija viņa māsa Džoana. Kentas kalpone, sera Tomasa de Holanda sieva un, otrkārt, Velsas Edvarda prinča sieva. Viņa nomira 1385. gadā, aizturēta no īres maksas un advokāta, (71. lpp.), Kas pārgāja viņas dēlam Tomam de Holandam, Kentas grāfam. Viņš nomira 1397. gadā (72. lpp.), Un viņa dēlu Tomasu apsūdzēja par nodevību 1399. gadā. Tomēr advovsons 1398. gadā tika uzticēts viņa mātei Alisei, un viņa nomira 1416. gadā. (Fn . 73) Viņas mantinieki bija viņas piecas mazmeitas, viena no viņām bija marta grāfiene Eleonora, kura viņu pirmstermiņā atstāja, atstājot mantinieka dēlu Edmundu Earlu no marta, kurš 1425. gadā nomira, piekāpjoties piektdaļai advokātu, atstājot trīs līdzmantiniekus. (74. Viņas mantinieks bija Hamfrijs Staforda grāfs, brāļa dēls. (75. lpp.) Advūsons, visticamāk, atgriezās pie krona, kad 1523. gadā tika ievainots viņa mazmazdēls Edvards Bekingemas hercogs, Stafordas grāfs. Padoms tika piešķirts seram Kristoferam Hatonam 1579. gada maijā (76. lpp.). viņa ģimenes īpašumā līdz 19. gs. Dzīvie bija dāvanā mācītājam V. Barijam, Blisvortas rektoram, un viņa pēctečiem no 1839. līdz 1930. gadam, bet pēc tam tos ieguva Dorsetas Kanfordas skolas gubernatori.

Labdarības organizācijas

1504. gadā Rodžers Veiks atstāja kādu zemi Bedfordšīrā, lai nodibinātu dziedājumu Svētās Marijas Jaunavas kapelā, kuras kapelānam bija arī jāuztur bezmaksas ģimnāzija ciematā. Skola tika saukta par Rodžera Veika Šantras un brīvo skolu, un, atņemot kantri zemes, tika turpināta pēc Kantri komisāru ordera, ar fiksētu stipendiju 11 sterliņu mārciņu apmērā no kronas ieņēmumiem. Līdz 19. gadsimta sākumam visas ģimnāzijas pēdas bija pazudušas, un stipendija kopš tā laika ir pievienota pamatskolas meistara algai. (77. lpp.)

Pēc draudzes slēgšanas tika piešķirta zemesgabals to zemju vietā, kas agrāk tika piešķirtas baznīcas remontam. Pašreizējā nomas maksa ir aptuveni 20 mārciņas.

Džeina Līsone pēc savas testamenta pierādīja, ka 1649. gadā dažās zemēs iekasēja maksājumus par daudzu vietu nabadzīgajiem (ieskaitot 1 10 mārciņas)s. gadā Blisvortam), ko izplatīs rektors, baznīcas sargi un vairāku pilsētu un ciematu pārraugi. Tagad šo summu trūcīgajiem sadala rektors un četri pilnvarnieki, kurus iecēlusi Blisvortas draudzes padome.

Marija Anna Vestlija ar savu testamentu pierādīja, ka 1931. gada 3. martā viņa 3 sūtījumu neto ieņēmumi ir novēlēti Blisvortas baptistu kapelas pilnvarotajiem, lai ienākumus novirzītu minētās kapelas ministra stipendijai. Dāvinājumu tagad pārstāv £ 139 11s. 9d. 3½% kara krājumi.


Apraksts

SP 7254 BLISWORTH HIGH STREET
(Dienvidu pusē)
10/23 Vecā mācītājmuiža


Māja, agrāk mācītājs. Datēts 1841. Kaļķakmens ashlar, šīfera jumti, akmens gals
un kores kaudzes. Divkāršs dziļuma plāns. 2 stāvi un bēniņi ar 3 logiem.
Centrālajā divslīpu lievenī ir dubultās šķautnes akmens durvis ar 4 centrētu galvu un
divviru durvis, sagrieztas lāpstiņas un kapuces veidne. Astoņstūrainas virsotnes leņķiem,
dubultās šķautnes 1-gaismas logi uz sāniem un parapets ar akmens segumu un frontonu ar
datakmens. Verandu papildina šauri vērtnes logi ar divšķautņu akmeni
ieskauj. Līči abās pusēs izlaužas uz priekšu, un tiem ir nošķelts akmens mullions un
šķērssvira logi uz pirmo stāvu, 2 gaiši nošķelti akmens mullion logi uz 1
grīdas, visas ar pāris mazām vērtnēm un kapuces veidnēm, un mazas vērtnes ar
nošķelts akmens ieskauj bēniņu frontonu. Cokola, 1. stāva stīgu kurss un
kronšteina karnīzes. Vienstāva 3 logu spārns pa labi. Interjers atzīmēts kā
kam ir atvērtas akas kāpnes ar vienkāršiem pagrieztiem balustriem, cirsts protektora galiem un
rampas un vainagi sarkankoka margas.


Blisvorta griešana - vēsture

Šī ir lapa neatkarīgajā vietnē, mājas lapā: http://blisworth.org.uk/images/index.html

Blisworth Arm vēsture

Šīs lapas mērķis ir atsaukties uz dokumentiem, kuros sniegta vēsturiska informācija, un piedāvāt (a) vienkāršu laika grafiku, (b) karti un (c) Northemptonas armijas galveno lietotāju sarakstu (līdz 1970. gadam).

Ir arī interaktīva Blisworth Arm ciema karte, kas norāda dažu vēsturisko ēku atrašanās vietu.

Pateicības: Pateicos visiem cilvēkiem, kuri palīdzēja apkopot šo informāciju: Deividam Blagrove, Reg Spittles, Phil Lizius, Brian Collings, Sally Edwards, John Dale, Doreen Blood, James Payler, Dave Goodwin un George Freeston, kurš izglāba lielu daļu Millner sarakstes tagad NRO

Domesday laiki, ti, 1066 - tā visa būtu “atkritumu” zeme, ko normāņi negribēja atzīmēt, izņemot sliežu ceļu, kas ir daļa no ļoti vecā Oksfordas ceļš tirdzniecības ceļš, kas, iespējams, datēts ar 8. gadsimtu, ja to izveidoja Mersijas Ofa, šķērsoja teritoriju pa aptuveni ziemeļu-dienvidu asi, kas savienoja Oksfordu un Northemptonu caur Grīnu Nortonu un Tifīldas pagastu. [Viena teorija pieņem, ka senais ceļš sakrīt ar ceļa asi caur Blisworth Arm, otra pieņem, ka tā seko ceļam no Geitonas, tiešā tuvumā, un nedaudz pievienojas uz austrumiem no Arm End.

Viduslaiku - Iedomājieties tikai šo trasi, sadalot Blisvortas un Geitonas pagastus un laukus pusjūdzes garumā. Geitonas pagasts tika iekļauts ļoti agri, savukārt šī Blisvortas pagasta daļa tika iekļauta tikai 1800. gadā. Vienkārši vietējie iedzīvotāji visu dienu mocījās pie vagām un klausījās, vai ciemata zvans atskanēs viņu & quottea-time & quot.

1757 - Visa teritorija uz dienvidiem no sliežu ceļa bija daļa no kopējās zemes, ko sauc par nether field vai Blisworth Field. Tuvākais slēgtais lauks (The Lowne) tika izlaists Wm. Plowman, 1650. gada Kromvelas kroņa zemes pirkumu saņēmēja pēctecis. Līdz Graftona apsekojumam 1757. gadā lielākajai daļai lauksaimnieku, kuri tika uzskatīti par labiem lauksaimniekiem, tika piešķirta zināma piekļuve koplietošanas zemes daļām, tāpēc tika izmesta ģimenes saimniecības "putru un vagu" shēma. Trase varētu būt mazāk kopta nekā viduslaikos, un tā iet gar Blisvortas un Geitonas pagasta robežu, iespējams, galvenokārt kalpojot jau esošajiem laukiem (c1600) Geitonas pagastā. “Tirdzniecības ceļš” jau sen tika pārcelts uz veco ceļu, kas iet caur Blisvortu un kuru drīzumā vajadzēja modernizēt līdz pagriezienam (no turienes A43).

1794 - Galvenais griezums Grand Junction kanāls tika izveidota līdz dienvidiem līdz grābeklim Blisworth ciematā, kur tika izveidota pārkraušanas piestātne. Vietējie iedzīvotāji neredzētu jēgu šai mākslīgajai “upei”. . . vēl. Trase ir nedaudz saliekta un veido īsas ielas sākumu caur ciematu.

1805 - Pievienojoties Grand Junction kanālam, tur tika izraktas a

150 jardu garš ūdensceļš, kas veda uz zirgu dzelzceļu, kas savieno kanālu ar Northemptonu. Vieta tika saukta Northemptonas Arm un tāds palika līdz aptuveni 1891. gadam, kad tautas skaitīšanā tika izmantots vārds Blisworth Arm. Pikfords pārcēlās no Blisvortas piestātnēm uz Arm, lai vadītu zirgu dzelzceļu, jo tuneļa pabeigšanas laikā ekspluatēja Blisvorthillas dzelzceļu no 1800. līdz 1805. gadam.
Neliela aptuveni 50 hektāru (?) Saimniecība tika iekļauta un piešķirta nomniekam Džonam Diksam - tas, iespējams, strauji paplašinājās līdz 152 akru fermai, kas vēlāk pazīstama kā (Old) Arm Farm.

1807 - tika atvērta sabiedriskā māja, kuru sākotnēji sauca par The New Inn (ne ilgāk kā 20 gadus), vēlāk nosaukumu Navigation Inn - fotogrāfijas. 1806. gada 13. janvārī Džordžs Mūrs izrakstīja Graftona hercogam rēķinu 1 16. 0. par koka sastatnēm (skafles) sabiedriskai mājai Dzelzceļa galā, Blisvortfīldā. 1809. gada balvas kartē tā ir parādīta kā nemarķēta (saimniecības) māja liela lauka stūrī. Skatiet informāciju saistītajā lapā.

1815 - 1. maijs, viss Northemptonas Arm, kā viena platuma ūdensceļš, bija izraktas un tika atvērtas satiksmei - tādējādi Nenes upe bija savienota ar kanālu sistēmu. Zirgu dzelzceļš tika slēgts, un Pickfords Company attālinājās no Arm. Tāds nosaukums kā Dzelzceļa gals deva ceļu Rokas gals. Uzņēmums Pickfords, kura pirmsākumi meklējami 17. gadsimtā, ekspluatēja arī lidmašīnas c1800, bet līdz 1850. gadam slēdza kanālu biznesu par labu dzelzceļam. Lai gan tas tika uzbūvēts kā viena platuma ūdensceļš, lai taupītu ūdeni, GJCCC sniedza nosacījumu Northemptonas uzņēmējiem, ka, ja Fokstonas un Votfordas slūžas vēlāk tiks paplašinātas, tad arī septiņpadsmit slēdzenes uz rokas.

1817 - Abas kotedžas, kuras 1900. gadā tika iekautas vienā mājā kā Tomasa Millnera rezidence, tika uzceltas pie tilta Nr. 2, lai kalpotu kā kanālstrādnieku mītne.

c1820 - Tiek pieņemts, ka GJCCC izveidoja savu apkopes rūpnīcu tās pašreizējā vietā vairāk vai mazāk uzreiz, kad tika pabeigta daļa. Ir atsauce uz to, ka no zirgu dzelzceļa paceltās sliedes bija sakrautas pagalmā un līdz 1824. gadam "liela sliežu kaudze gaida iznīcināšanu". Daži no tiem tika piedāvāti Temzas tunelim Co, kas 1825. gadā uzsāka tuneļu ekspluatācijas darbus, un tiek uzskatīts, ka sliežu kaudzi, iespējams, ir apskatījis IK tēvs sers Marks Brunels, kurš 1824. gadā atradās šajā teritorijā, konsultējot Oksfordas kanālu. iztaisnojot līniju uz ziemeļiem no Braunstonas. Dažas sliedes tika dotas Džonam Roperim, lai tās izmantotu kaļķakmens dzelzceļam Blisvortas akmens rūpnīcās, un atlikumus atklāja Džordžs Frīstons.

c1820 - Neskaidras iepazīšanās iezīme bija tilts, kas uzbūvēts pāri The Arm kaklam un stiepjas līdz Toll Cottage - tilts Nr. Jādomā, ka tā bija samērā niecīga koka lieta, jo īpaši gājējiem, kas bija nodevējs, jo tas bija šūpoles tilts, iespējams, peldošs, lai laivas ielaistu rokā. To papildināja stacija pie krasta vasarnīcas pusē un pievienojās ievērojamai zemes pussalai otrā pusē, kā parādīts detalizētajā kartē. Ja iestudējums ir tas, kas tiek minēts ierakstā sarunā par nodevnieku, tad tilts joprojām tika izmantots pēc 1890.

18?? - Citas neskaidras iepazīšanās iezīmes ir (a). ķieģeļu rūpnīcas izveide (sākotnēji Savage kungs?) tieši uz ziemeļiem no tilta Nr.2. Lai gan ir loģiski sagaidīt ķieģeļu mūrus no c1795, pirmais skaitīšanas ieraksts ķieģeļu izgatavotājam pie Arm ir 1851. (b). izveidot, iespējams, c1810, un nojaukt (kad?) noliktavu, ko izmantoja Pickfords Company - skatīt detalizētu karti - Arm piestātnē (c). tuvumā kalēja ierīkošana (skat. detalizētu karti); d) vasarnīcu celtniecība gan pagalma iežogojuma iekšpusē (kanāla darbiniekiem skatīt detalizētu karti un atzīmēt tās zemsvītras piezīmi, kas uzcelta pirms 1900. gada un nojaukta līdz 1930. gadam), gan otrā pusē the road, the building of two farm cottages, before 1900, of inferior bricks next to stables , modernised c1970. Also an undated snippet is the fact that the Northampton Arm was one of the last waterways on the system to operate a horse supplied by the canal company.

c1870 - Arm Farm was taken by new tenants - the Savage family hence the name, now forgotten, for two semi-detached houses opposite the canal yard - Savages Cottages.

1895 - Thomas Millner became Canal Manager for the local section (Braunston to Fenny Stratford) and made the Arm his HQ and taking over from a Mr. Cooke. He lived in the Toll Cottage to begin with but in 1900 he took over a large double cottage as his residence - Canal House. He named his operational base there "Gayton Maintenance Yard", consistent with Grand Junction Canal convention at the time which was to refer to the nearest village by road. By this time, the conventional name for the hamlet was Blisworth Arm as judged by the census documents. Mr. Cooke later departed for USA - he was "fed up with England".

1905 - At Millner's request, a windmill pump and borehole was established near the top lock on the Northampton Arm so that piped 'mains' water could be provided for his house, the boater's services, the brickworks in both Savage's and Asplin's time and the maintenance yard. All this supply is thought to be from a high mounted reservoir near the lock - long since removed. I n later years the Navigation Inn, while still part of the Grafton Estate, was included in the supply. Evidently Millner thought that the Navigation Inn was an important asset in promoting the smooth running of canal business! He makes his support in 1915 plain for all to see.

1911 - Mr. Savage's brickworks just to the north of bridge No.2 ("Arm End Brickyard") was relinquished to a new tenant W.T. Asplin. In the 1914 Kelly directory he is recorded a brick and tile-maker. However, he ceased to use the brickworks from 1917 onwards.
Bridge No.48 on the main cut, "Junction Br.", was taken down and completely rebuilt. There was a fault in its foundations.

1912 - Perhaps as a result of last year's bridge trouble, bridges on the Arm were strengthened with iron ties.

c1919 - Arm Farm was bought by W. T. Asplin who may have been the Grafton tenant there for many years (Grafton records lost in a fire).

1919 - Lot 19 in the Duke of Grafton's Estate sale - The Navigation Inn was sold to Phipps Brewery, Northampton - resident publican A. E. Abram. See details in the associated page.

1919 - Millner recommended in a letter to his bosses in London that they acquire Lots 20 and 21 in the sale - ". I think the acquisition would be beneficial to the company" : (Lot 20) "A valuable brickyard and pasture field - all buildings and the chimney shaft belonging to the tenant W. T. Asplin of Milton" - bought by GJCCC. for 500 with the let continuing - but it seems it lasted only for 2 years. GJCCC management had no idea what this plot would be used for - "let's not sell cottage plots to the public, we might want to build our own staff cottages". The area later became a source of puddling clay.

1919 - Lot 21 was sold for 75 to W. T. Asplin (preference given to the tenant) with the wharf presumably used for sand and brick distribution by canal. GJCCC wanted this plot and attempted to buy it from Asplin through the 1920s. Asplin also bought at this time Lot 22, a sand pit, on the other side of the railway (then) for 875.00 - a site now occupied by Kottler Heron and Leyland-DAF commercial vehicles, among others . There are some historic notes based on an article and copies of Deeds made available by Philip Lizius, the present owner of the plot.

1921 - Asplin ends his tenancy at the brickworks having taken down buildings and moved his operation across the railway. He used local labour in the move.

1929 - The canal through this area, formerly the Grand Junction Canal, was designated part of the Grand Union Canal.

1931 - Russian Oil Products Ltd. (R.O.P.) took a small piece of land, rented from GUCCC, as a depot for petrol distribution. At the time, GUCCC considered a whole list of possible sites but erred in favour of this one because of the perceived fire risk.
Thomas Millner, having retired in 1929/30, vacated Canal House (he died in Watford 1943 and was buried with wife Bena at Gayton). Millner's successor in 1929 was Charles N. Hadlow who took up residence in the Toll Cottage while Canal House was let privately.

1930s - Before WWII the c anal fishing rights on the Arm were rented by Northampton Angling Society at a cost of about 10 per mile per annum.

c1936 - Recorded in a postal directory is Claude Frederick Harlow at the Toll Cottage. This is of course C. Hadlow.

War Years - It is thought that Hadlow possibly shared his house during the war years when the whole canal network was 'taken over' by the government. The Toll Cottage was accommodation for a government official and his family, Ernest G. Dale, who described himself as a GUCCC employee and whose job it was to manage the storage of strategic emergency foods. In 1940 Dale took over the R.O.P. depot after the petrol tanks and pumps had all been removed and started to store foodstuffs. By 1942/3 his operation must have transferred into the much favoured Blisworth (Westley) mill building which had become GUCCC property by then (see link below for John Dale's memoirs). Aerial photos of 1947 (NRO) show one small shed and an empty plot accommodating a looped drive with in- and out-gates.

1946 - GUCCC let the old disused petrol depot, newly referred to as Depot No.3, to Derngate Motors for a while and then opted to again offer it to petrol and oil companies [there must have been some canal benefit from this?] People recall Esso, Texaco and Shell being involved but the most 'solid' seems to be that the depot was used by Watsons Oils (part of Texaco) - see article link above.

1948 - GUCCC was nationalised on January 1, 1948 and came under the control of the Docks & Inland Waterways Executive of the British Transport Commission.

c1951 - Arm Farm, still 152 acres, was sold to the Stroud family by Asplin's descendants.

1953 - Easter. The Navigation Inn was closed and sold. See details in the associated page.

1962 - The management of the canal system, whilst still controlled by government, was re-organised as the British Waterways Board which begat British Waterways. By now the annual charge for fishing rights had been increased by British Waterways to 200 per mile which resulted in different clubs taking over the waters. They used to come out by bus and were dropped off at bridge points. It became a little industry - some canal-side houses providing tea, hot water, sandwiches and confectionery. The push and pull train on the local line would drop off and pick up by request at suitable spots such as the Banbury Lane crossing.

60. gadi - British Waterways appreciated the excellent clay, for puddling, available at the site of Asplin's old brickworks (Lot 20) and proceeded to extract it. The resulting large hollow filled with water at a level somewhat below that of the neighbouring Arm and even acquired a colony of water lilies (photographed by Walter Alexander) and its own clandestine flock of fishermen who parked on the horse railway 'track' and crept through narrow gaps in the hedge. The place became known as The Lake and there were voices heard 20 years hence in Blisworth - "we want to keep our Lake".

1960 -70 - Arm Farm was bought by Harry Capell of Shutlanger and, in 1963, a new farm house was established near Canal House and named New Arm Farm. Hence a modified name for the main farm - Old Arm Farm. Not long afterwards, c 1970, the farm buildings along the road opposite the yard were modernised.

1967 - After Station Road was adopted and officially named (eight years after there was no station!) by NCC there was the question of signage to the Arm. George Freeston saw fit to lobby County officials that the name of this hamlet should remain as Blisworth Arm and not be transformed into Gayton Arm! There has been good natured discussion ever since - see 1980 entry.

1975 - Brabs Baillion purchased a north section of the wharf next to the yard, thus presumably merging with the Canal House curtilage which then would be extended right to the water edge (annotations to old conveyance at Head Office, British Waterways noticed by D. Blagrove).

1980 - A boat marina was established by enlarging and profiling The Lake in the area that was earlier used as a source of clay for bricks and canal use. The company was initially "Freshwater Marine" and they named the marina "Gayton Water". Alvechurch Leisure and ABC Leisure Group have since called it "Gayton Marina". An early company statement explained they wished to avoid annoyance to locals and confusion with any businesses in Blisworth. It was not going to be easy but they decided to follow GJCCC. (British Waterways) with their designation "Gayton Junction" for the canals there and "Gayton Maintenance Yard" for their operations there even though it resides within Blisworth parish. Besides, the marina is on the Gayton Road from Milton Malsor.

1983 - The building that was once a pub, Navigation Cottage, was extended by the owners, the Holmes family, using the space occupied by stables (latterly a garage) and loft. The loft was the sleeping quarters mentioned by Thomas Henshaw.

1991 - The Blisworth and Milton Malsor A43 Bypass was completed. It uses a section of the levels built for the Northampton and Peterborough railway branch line. Note the access roads put in on the A43 and just visible in the Google image below. They have not been put to any use because projects to commercially develop land in the Arm area, on both sides of the main road, were quashed at the enquiry stage.

2007 - May, a new marina west of the Grand Union Canal was opened - "Blisworth Marina& quot. The excavation involved the removal of 100s tonnes of, unsurprisingly, clay. However, a deep seam of particularly good clay for puddling canals and marinas etc. was found and used there. The extra depth of hole created by removing 'best clay' was backfilled with 'second rate clay'.

2008 - Attempts to develop the hamlet, with a small housing project, were refused planning permission as the hamlet seriously lacks both access and parking provision for vehicles.

2009 - A growing environmental awareness has resulted in attention being focussed on the neglected state of the plot once occupied by the R.O.P. Company (see above) and improvement by the owners is imminent.
An information board has been recently installed by British Waterways at the Arm junction. It draws attention to the turnover bridge, the Toll house, the yard, the Navigation and Canal House thus covering the most obvious of the historical features. The board is entitled "Gayton Junction" to align with British Waterways custom dating from c1920 and, unfortunately, not "Northampton Arm Junction" which would have recalled the c1805 years, thus broadening the historical perspective.

2010 - After years of lobbying the NCC, there was set up proper highway signage in August at the end of Station Road near the railway arch. Future difficulties in, for example, an ambulance finding the Arm should be lessened.


The Canals of England and Wales and their History

The Canals were the &ldquomotorways&rdquo of the 18th Century. In the days when roads were un-surfaced and especially when they quickly deteriorated in the winter to pot-holed muddy tracks, a method was sought by which large heavy cargoes of such commodities as coal, iron ore, grain, china clay, limestone and other building materials and agricultural cargoes such as grain could be transported from the regions of the UK in which they were produced to the docks in London, Liverpool, Bristol and so on. Some clever person came up with &ldquothe canal system&rdquo, by which boats with cargoes could be moved easily and relatively cheaply on water across country, by one or two people in a canal boat plus a reliable heavy horse to act as the force which propelled the canal boat along.

A horse drawing a narrowboat along the canal cut - photo reproduced by kind permission

of Blisworth Images and taken by P Digby.

Canals were not a new concept. The Romans built them for exactly the purpose for which they were required in the 18th Century (i.e. to move heavy cargoes from A to B) and also for the transportation of large amounts of water across valleys and hills. However, it was only with the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th Century that entrepreneurs realized the potential of canal construction. They banded together and lobbied Parliament to pass Acts which enabled the construction of canals to commence. The necessary money for investment was quickly raised, and huge gangs of workers were rounded up to start the mammoth task of digging &ldquothe Cuts&rdquo.

Old photo of horse drawing a narrowboat on a canal - photo reproduced by permission with grateful thanks to Blisworth Images. Photographer unknown.


The Cuts were literally that &ndash cuttings into the landscape to enable the water to be channeled along, thus linking rivers and towns. It was easier to dig canal cuttings by following the contours of the land as far as possible. Where major changes in the gradients occurred a different approach was required. In order to make provision for the water to &ldquogo up&rdquo and &ldquogo down&rdquo so to speak (and thus to raise and lower boats and their cargoes) locks had to be constructed. The locks were &ndash again &ndash basic technology for the time, but this was the first time that the system of locks had been employed so extensively. The lock system was a wonder of the age. In order to raise boats up steep hills whole staircases of locks were designed, and new systems of filling them with water were devised, such as side pounds. It was an exciting time.

Old photo showing "Navvies" working on "The Cut" - photo reproduced with kind permission of Blisworth Images

Most of the labourers employed in the canal digs were from Ireland and the industrial north of England. They became known as &ldquoNavigators&rdquo or &ldquoNavvies&rdquo for short, and the term is still in use to this day for labourers on building sites. In a space of a little over 30 years most of England from the Thames up to the Yorkshire coalfields was criss-crossed with inter-connecting canals.

Some of the canals were cut through hillsides in deep tunnels. This set a problem for the boat people who could not lead a horse through the tunnels because there was no towpath inside. The boats had to be propelled through the tunnels by means of men lying on boards across the top of the narrowboats and literally walking (or "legging") the boats through the length of the cold dark tunnels. Some of the tunnels were over a kilometre in length and this must have been a simply awesome feat.

"Leggers" walking a narrowboat through a tunnel - photos reproduced by kind permission of Blisworth Images and with grateful thanks to Rick Muir and L Hack.

The narrow boats were hauled along by giant Shire horses who plodded along the towpaths at the side of the canals, towing their laden narrow boats behind them. Cargoes were being transported from the Black Country to Liverpool docks via such canals as the Duke of Bridgewater&rsquos canal. He financed this one by himself &ndash and reaped the huge profits which arose from its construction.

As far as the Canals and the River Thames were concerned, the thrust was to get cargoes from the Midlands and the North of England down to the docks in the East End of London. This was very successful, and even up until the Second World War the canals were thriving. By the 1950ies however the whole system of moving cargoes by water was in decline, and a new approach was necessary - or the canals would be filled in once again.

Thanks largely to the great work of the Inland Waterways Association, and societies like them who campaigned tirelessly on behalf of the canals and conducted a relentless battle to save the inland waterways from destruction, a renewed interest in them grew up 40 years ago. L.T.C. Rolt wrote his now famous classic book &ldquoNarrow Boat&rdquo, which did much to inspire new generations of people who wanted to experience life on the canals for themselves. Another famous campaigner, Robert Aickman, cruised the waterways and wrote articles that created the publicity that forced local authorities to repair canal routes that had illegally been allowed to become scarcely passable. Gradually people began to see the leisure possibilities in the network of canals that remained.

Narrowboat on Oxford Canal - photo courtesy JB

The traditional narrow boat was adapted for leisure use, and boat builders created boats which were the height of luxury, complete with diesel powered engines, showers, fridges and freezers and TVs. All About Boats in the BoatBuilders section .

Hire boat companies sprung up the length and breadth of the canal network, and holidays afloat the canals are now extremely popular. The view of the countryside from your own boat as it gently glides down a canal is unique. You can be lucky and see all kinds of wildlife such as otters and kingfishers, and life becomes very relaxed until the next lock has to be navigated! Then it is all hands to the deck as the balance beams of the lock gates have to be closed and the windlasses have to be wound up or down to raise the paddles which let water into the lock. For more details of Canal boating holidays visit Boating Holidays and Short Breaks

Locking through - balance beam on the last lock of the Oxford Canal - photo courtesy JB

Restoration and campaigning work continues to be undertaken on behalf of the Canals &ndash our great national asset, like the River Thames &ndash by such notables as David Suchet and Lionel Monk and by the tireless efforts of the enthusiasts of the Inland Waterways Association and the Waterways Recovery Group.

The following pages are devoted to aspects of the Canals that connect with the River Thames. Click on them to obtain further information


Blisworth Tunnel

Blisworth Tunnel, in Northamptonshire, is one of the longest in Britain. 3076 yards long and broad enough for two narrowboats to pass, it is surpassed only by Standedge Tunnel (on the Huddersfield Narrow Canal) and Dudley Tunnel in the Black Country near Birmingham.

Building Blisworth Tunnel, was the most troublesome part of the Grand Junction Canal's (now known as the Grand Union Canal) construction. When work began, in 1793, the building of a 3km tunnel was a major feat of engineering with no mechanical aids beyond the basic picks, shovels and wheelbarrows available. To add to their basic problems, just three years into the project the navvies hit quicksand. All work had to be abandoned and a new course begun.

Once built, Blisworth had a tunnel tug until 1936.


Gayton Wood Farm/Mining the Gayton Parish


View Larger Map
An overview of the history of the mining/quarrying relating to the former Northampton & Banbury Junction railway (which became the former Stratford Upon Avon & Midland Junction railway – SMJ) in the area of Gayton, a village near Blisworth in the county of Northamptonshire (bridge 1 to bridge 5)

Mining of the earth’s natural resources in the Blisworth area of Northamptonshire has been evident for many centuries. This short piece is, if nothing else a way of me putting things straight in my head in relationship to quarrying in the area and the new railway.
This new line, which started out in May 1866 as the Northampton & Banbury Junction railway, (N&BJR) opening as it did a short section from Blisworth on the main London, Birmingham line of Stephenson, 1838 to Towcester was built on the premise of the movement of all the ore from the area. The Towcester section was subsequently followed up by an extension to a junction with the LMW,R at Cockley Brake and so into Banbury.

The company had great plans to run onto South Wales but these plans were never realised and the company was to struggle to survive. The N&BJR became part of the SMJ in 1910 , the section between Blisworth and Towcester having built strong links with the mining/quarrying in the parish of Gayton in the interim years. Mining/quarrying was evident on both sides of the line and transhipment points had been constructed along the branch.

The SMJ’s bridge 1 took the minor road from Blisworth to Rothersthorpe over the line then immediately alongside that (and still is – bridge 1 having been demolished in reference to the construction of the Blisworth bypass) was a small bridge over the London to Birmingham line of 1838. The road down to the Walnut Inn (formerly the station pub) sits on the former SMJ trackbed.

As we travel along the line from Blisworth to Towcester we can see the line of a chord facing north which ran from the main line and came in to run parallel with the SMJ albeit initially substantially lower than the SMJ which at this point was on an embankment. This private line I believe to be the Blisworth Ironstone sidings, it most certainly did meet up with tramway which passed over SMJ bridge 2 a few tens of chains along which fed quarries on both sides of the N&BJ,R. These sidings were connected to, or were in fact Wheldon’s sidings. Around 1888, Wheldon’s sidings moved from a location a few chains further west and a simple transhipment point was created in the shape of an over-bridge running across 3 or 4 sidings from where quarried material was tipped from the lesser tramway wagons into mainline wagons to be taken away. The private sidings had a connection with the N&BJ,R which had closed by 1927. The Blisworth Ironstone sidings themselves were completely lifted by 1950 although their bed can been seen clearly on Google today.

The Wheldon’s sidings itself undertook a number of changes in its life and having moved in 1888 from further west did run under bridge 3 which carried the Gayton/Blisworth road alongside the N&BJ,R. At one point having both a West and East connection, materials were able to be taken from nearby quarry workings from the tramways and onto the N&BJ.R/SMJ and taken away.

One mystery as we continue our journey from Blisworth comes in the shape of bridge 1A. There are two unnumbered culverts which pass beneath the line at this point to aid drainage but bridge 1A doesn't quite fit in . 58 chains along and listed as 1A on the piers that remain, and listed as such on the bridge detail, a document which is available here Bridge numbers

Bridge 1A’s main supports are quite complete, consisting of several straight brick towers looking like they’d hold a simple flat platform across the culvert which runs to the north side of the track bed. They are alongside what became Richard Thomas’s sidings, which fed the quarrying at the Gayton Wood Farm site – but not until 1940’s, more of which to follow. https://thesmjr.ning.com/photo/albums/richard-thomasthe-tramway

At the site of bridge 1A on an early map from around 1870 there is something which passes under the (or so it seems) the new railway dog-legging left to join the Gayton/Blisworth road passing over the previously mentioned transhipment point and Wheldon’s sidings. Remember, The sidings of Richard Thomas’s didn’t come into being until the 1940’s. It is possible that the track bed at this
point took on a slightly different look to what it became .

And so to bridge 2. https://thesmjr.ning.com/photo/bridge-2 context=album&albumId=3138568:Album:9165 Bridge 2 (of which the north pier still remains) at 58 chains was just past the former junction with the former Wheldon’s sidings, which would explain the existence of a P-Way hut (still extant) on the spot. https://thesmjr.ning.com/photo/permanent-way-hut-along-side/next?context=album&albumId=3138568:Album:9165
The area was awash with quarrying both sides of the line. Along with the main railway lines, many temporary tramways were set up, being constantly moved and extended to keep up with the quarrying. The large field alongside bridge 2 to the south (I will call it field 1) was no exception.

From before 1900 field 1 had been plundered for its many resources and so warranted connections to both the railway, and the canal at Blisworth. Bridge 2 took a tramway across the then N&BJ,R to the transhipment point where Wheldon’s sidings met the Blisworth Ironstone sidings, initially running straight into the field due south as this is where the quarrying was.

Around the same time quarrying began in the field to the west of the previous field (I shall call it field 2) and so further transhipment points were required.

https://thesmjr.ning.com/photo/alignment-of-gayton-wood-farm?context=album&albumId=3138568:Album:9165
A tramway was set up which went to the railway at one end, and the canal at the other. There were 2 railway over-bridges around this point, bridges 4 and 5. Bridge 4 was an occupation bridge for Gayton Wilds Farm and bridge 5 too, an occupation bridge. Bridge 4 though seemed to have once taken a trackway across it as seen on an early 19th century map, bridge 5 was too possibly a tramway
bridge as there is evidence of a tramway from the quarrying to a simple transhipment point in connection with Wheldon’s original sidings in-between bridges 4 and 5 which consisted of a simple Shute system for transferring quarried materials to mainline wagons from tramway wagons. Wheldon’s sidings here were connected to the N&BJ,R. A further tramway ran north from here to further quarries south of Gayton village.

Field 2 was to the north of an area of quarrying which became Gayton Wood Farm which was amongst some of the last quarry in the area – working as it did ‘til the late 60’s and it too supported several tramways. I imagine when mining in field 1 became exhausted, (dates seem to support a slow movement west of the quarrying) a bridge was built under the Gayton/Blisworth road (and I would say quite a while ago – possibly around 1900/1920.

The bridges which are still extant today (but may not have been the original ones) and the tramway which came over bridge 2 was diverted under the new bridge to support the quarrying in field
2. As stated, quarrying, and the subsequent support needed such as tramways were a very fluid affair. Tramways were extended to where the quarrying was. In the early 40’s the sidings of Richard Thomas’s were constructed. 3 sidings which ran parallel with the then SMJ and fed by ground frames at each end at around 68 chains from Blisworth.

https://thesmjr.ning.com/photo/gayton-wood-farm-branch?context=album&albumId=3138568:Album:9165
The line passed through a small cutting and over a slight embankment on its relatively steep journey down to the SMJ. Passing through field 1 and into field 2 it sprouted many tramways along the way and, as the quarry had passed on that way under another concrete bridge into the quarries of Gayton Wood Farm which ran down to the former Blisworth/Towcester road.

The line to Gayton Wood from Richard Thomas’s sidings was of mainline standard and at Gayton Wood farm engines sheds, a weighbridge and a maintenance department were built to service
and support the locos which worked there as well as moving, weighing etc the outgoing quarrying materials before they passed under the two concrete bridges on their way down the hill to Richard Thomas’s.

Gayton Wood was worked until 1968. It’s huge excavators a feature landmark of the Blisworth area. The noise, the sounds of drilling and excavating well know to the people of Blisworth.

Now all gone, all that remains are the over-grown memories, the engine sheds are still there at Gayton Wood and the quarrying holes have conveniently filled with water and fish! A small hut which once might have been an inspectors hut or similar sits in the middle of one of the fishing lakes, half poking out of the waters looking somewhat incongruous and in for an unsure future. The fields about are full of humps and bumps of a bygone age.

The SMJ tracked bed can be walked from bridge 3 all the way to the Walnut Inn at Blisworth which will serve you a nice drink for your efforts. There are more questions than answers along the way so if you have a few – do let me know and hopefully someone will have the corresponding answers!

The action on the map above all happens bottom left. Note Gayton House, the Tiffield/Blisworth road and all the tramways/rail lines between Gayton Wood Farm and the then N&B Junction railway.


Slēdzenes

When Benjamin Bevan was given the job of designing locks at Foxton he faced two major problems. The first was water, which was in short supply on the 20 mile summit pound of the canal. The second was the steep escarpment which he needed to use to get the canal from one level to the next. He combined solutions to both problems.

Work on Foxton Locks started in 1810 and was officially opened 4 years later in 1814. A trip through the ten locks takes about 45 minutes to ascend/descend the 75 ft rise. The ten locks consist of two "staircases" of five, located on the Leicester line of the Grand Union Canal, about 5 km west of the Leicestershire town of Market Harborough.

GRAND UNION

The Grand Junction Canal was built to improve the communications between Birmingham and the Midlands and London. It received its Act in 1793 and was fully opened in 1805. Its major engineering works were the two long tunnels at Blisworth and Braunston, and the long and deep cutting at Tring summit. LASĪT VAIRĀK

INCLINED PLANE

Opened in 1900. With the coming of the railways, competition was starting to bite. Fellows Morton and Clayton (FMC) wanted to use bigger boats to take coal from the north to the London factories. The lift was built by J & H Gwynne of Hammersmith, London. They got the job as they proposed using hydraulic power for the gates and ancillary equipment. It consisted of two tanks or caissons linked by wire rope. A steam driven winch at the top wound the rope on to one side of its drum and simultaneously let it off the other, raising and lowering the tanks. Each tank was full of water and weighed 230 tons with or without a boat. Two boats or one barge would fit in to each tank. The gradient was 1 in 4. CONTINUED on Foxton Inclined Plane Trust web site

GRAND UNION LEICESTER SECTION

What is now called the &lsquoLeicester Line&rsquo comprised two canals which were bought by the Grand Junction Canal in 1894: the Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union Canal and the &lsquoold&rsquo Grand Union Canal.

The river Soar had been made navigable up to Loughborough by 1780, and the route was extended to Leicester in 1794. The Leicestershire & Northamptonshire Union Canal was promoted to continue the waterway to Market Harborough and Northampton, where it would meet the River Nene and the planned branch from the Grand Junction Canal at Gayton.

By 1797, when construction had only reached Gumley Debdale, the money had been used up. More was raised in 1805, and the canal got to Market Harborough four years later. LASĪT VAIRĀK


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